Trees III pp 254-268 | Cite as

Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea Morelet)

  • G. P. Berlyn
  • S. J. Kohls
  • A. O. Anoruo
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 16)

Abstract

Caribbean pine, (Pinus caribaea Morelet) is the most widely planted conifer in the tropics (Nikles 1979; Greaves 1980, 1981). The worldwide planting program encompasses four continents and is approaching 90,000 ha per year, making Caribbean pine the dominant plantation conifer in the world. The reason for its immense popularity is: (1) its rapid rate of growth and development; (2) hardiness with respect to insects and disease; (3) tracheid qualities; and (4) its ability to be highly productive in diverse environments (e.g., Fig. 1). The selection of Caribbean pine for tropical reforestation and plantations was primarily predicated on its use for pulp, but it has also proved suitable in varying degree for products such as lumber, fence posts, and fuelwood. Thus, it qualifies as a multipurpose rapid-growing tree species (Goodwin-Bailey and Palmer 1987). However, a major problem is that seed production outside its natural range is often very low and the cost of importing seed is prohibitive for many less developed countries (Slee 1967; Gallegos 1983; Okoro and Okali 1987; Zobel et al. Stahl 1987; Anoruo 1988).

Keywords

Sucrose Chlorophyll Bark Malaysia Argentina 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anoruo AO (1988) Biotechnology, growth, development and wood quality of Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea Mor.). Doct For Thesis, Yale Univ School For Environ Stud, New Haven, ConnGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold S von, Woodward S (1988) Organogenesis and embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos ofPicea sitchensis. Tree Physiol 4: 291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrett WHG, Golfari L (1962) Descripcion de dos nuevas variedades del “Pino de Caribe”. Carib For 23: 59–71Google Scholar
  4. Berlyn GP (1962) Developmental patterns in pine polyembryony. Am J Bot 79: 327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berlyn GP, Beck RC (1980) Tissue culture as a technique for studying meristematic activity. In: Little CHA (ed) Control of shoot growth in trees. Proc IUFRO Conf Mar For Res Centre, Fredericton, N B, Can, pp 305–324Google Scholar
  6. Berlyn GP, Miksche JP (1965) Growth of excised pine embryos and the role of the cotyledons during germination in vitro. Am J Bot 52: 730–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berlyn GP, Beck RC, Renfroe MH (1986) Tissue culture and the propagation and genetic improvement of conifers: problems and possibilities. Tree Physiol 1: 227–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berlyn GP, Anoruo AO, Beck RC, Cheng JP (1987) DNA content polymorphism and tissue culture regeneration in Caribbean pine. Can J Bot 65: 954–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell RA, Durzan DJ (1975) Induction of multiple buds and needles in tissue cultures of Picea glauca. Can J Bot 53: 1652–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chalmers WS (1962) The breeding of pine (Pinus caribaea Mor.) and teak (Tectona grandis L.) in Trinidad — some early observations. Carib For 23: 100–111Google Scholar
  11. David A, David H (1979) Isolation and callus formation from cotyledon protoplasts of pine (Pinus pinaster). Z Pflanzenphysiol 94: 173–177Google Scholar
  12. David A, David H, Mateille T (1982) Evaluation of parameters affecting the yield, variability and cell division of Pinus pinaster protoplasts. Physiol Plant 56: 108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Durzan DJ (1982) Somatic embryogenesis and sphaeroblasts in conifer suspensions. In: Fujiwara A (ed) Plant tissue culture 1982. Maruzen, Tokyo, pp 113–114Google Scholar
  14. Durzan DJ, Gupta PK (1987) Somatic embryogenesis and polyembryogenesis in Douglas-fir cell suspension cultures. Plant Sci 52: 229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gallegos, CM (1983) Flowering and seed production of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (results of a worldwide survey) Fast growing trees. Silvicultura 39: 84–87Google Scholar
  16. Goodwin-Bailey CI, Palmer ER (1987) Pulp and wood properties of Pinus caribaea and Pinus oocarpa from Uganda Commw. For Rev 66: 49–60Google Scholar
  17. Greaves A (1980) Review of Pinus caribaea Morelet and Pinus oocarpa Schiede international provenance trials. Comm For Inst Occ Pap 12Google Scholar
  18. Greaves A (1981) Progress in the Pinus caribea Morelet and Pinus oocarpa Schiede international provenance trials. Comm For Rev 60: 35–43Google Scholar
  19. Gresshoff P, Doy C (1972) Development and differentiation of haploid Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Planta 107: 161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1985) Shoot multiplication from mature trees of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana). Plant Cell Rep 4: 177–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1986a) Somatic polyembryogenesis from callus of mature sugar pine embryos. Biotechnology 4: 643–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1986b) Plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from subcultured callus of mature embryos of Picea abies (Norway spruce) in vitro. Cell Dev Bio122: 685–688Google Scholar
  23. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1987) Biotechnology of somatic polyembryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in loblolly pine. Biotechnology 54: 147–151Google Scholar
  24. Hakman I, Arnold S von (1985) Plantlet regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in Picea abies ( Norway spruce ). J Plant Physiol 121: 149–158Google Scholar
  25. Hakman I, Fowke LC (1987) Somatic embryogenesis in Picea glauca (white spruce) and Picea mariana (black spruce). Can J Bot 65: 655–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hakman I, Fowke LC, Arnold S von, Eriksson T (1985) The development of somatic embryos in tissue cultures initiation from immature embryos of Picea abies ( Norway spruce ). Plant Sci 38: 53–59Google Scholar
  27. Hussain MZ (1987) Growth studies of plantations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Puerto Rico. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Library, Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Kirby EG, Chang PY (1979) Colony formation from protoplasts derived from Douglas-fir cotyledons. Plant Sci Lett 14: 145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lamb AFA (1973) Fast growing trees of the lowland tropics — Pinus caribaea, vol 1(6). Univ Oxford Comm For Inst, 254 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Little EL Jr, Dorman KW (1952) Slash pine (Pinus elliotti). Its nomenclature and varieties. J For 50: 918–923Google Scholar
  31. Little EL Jr, Dorman KW (1954) Slash pine (Pinus elliotti), including south Florida slash pine. Nomenclature and description. US For Sery SE For Exp Stn Pap 36Google Scholar
  32. Lowery R (1980) Production of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis planting stock using pregirdled stem cuttings. Malay For 43: 16–23Google Scholar
  33. Lu C-Y, Thorpe TA (1986) Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in cultured immature embryos of Picea glauca. J Plant Physiol 129: 297–302Google Scholar
  34. Lückhoff HA (1964) The natural distribution, growth, and botanical variation of Pinus caribea and its cultivation in South Africa. Ann Univ Stellenbosch 39 Ser A 1: 4–161Google Scholar
  35. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nagmani R, Bonga JM (1985) Embryogenesis in subcultured callus of Larix decidua. Can J For Res 15: 1088–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nikles DG (1979) Genetic improvement of lowland tropical conifers. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  38. Okoro O (1980) Possible potentials of vegetative propagules of Pinus caribaea Morelet in Nigerian forestry. In: Proc 10th Ann For Assoc Meet Ibadan, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  39. Okoro O, Okali DUU (1987) Seed cone quality of Nigerian-grown Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis. For Ecol Manag 9: 41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Patel KR, Shekhawat NS, Berlyn GP, Thorpe TA (1984) Isolation and culture of protoplasts from cotyledons of Pinus coulteri D Don Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 3: 85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schenk RN, Hildebrandt AC (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can J Bot 50: 199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Slee, MU (1967) The vegetative propagation of Caribbean pine in Queensland. Aust Dep For Res 20, 7 PPGoogle Scholar
  43. Slee MU, Spidy T, Gordon P (1970) Air-layering of Caribbean pine in Queensland. Aust For Res 4: 41–44Google Scholar
  44. Webb DT, Santiago OD (1983) Cytokinin induced bud formation on Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea Morelet) embryos in vitro. Plant Sci Lett 32: 17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Whitmore JL, Liegel LH (1980) Spacing trials of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis. USDA For Sery Res Pap SO–162, 9 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Zobel BJ, van Wyr G, Stahl P (1987) Growing exotic forests. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Berlyn
  • S. J. Kohls
  • A. O. Anoruo
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Greeley Memorial LaboratoryYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations