Trees III pp 254-268 | Cite as

Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea Morelet)

  • G. P. Berlyn
  • S. J. Kohls
  • A. O. Anoruo
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 16)


Caribbean pine, (Pinus caribaea Morelet) is the most widely planted conifer in the tropics (Nikles 1979; Greaves 1980, 1981). The worldwide planting program encompasses four continents and is approaching 90,000 ha per year, making Caribbean pine the dominant plantation conifer in the world. The reason for its immense popularity is: (1) its rapid rate of growth and development; (2) hardiness with respect to insects and disease; (3) tracheid qualities; and (4) its ability to be highly productive in diverse environments (e.g., Fig. 1). The selection of Caribbean pine for tropical reforestation and plantations was primarily predicated on its use for pulp, but it has also proved suitable in varying degree for products such as lumber, fence posts, and fuelwood. Thus, it qualifies as a multipurpose rapid-growing tree species (Goodwin-Bailey and Palmer 1987). However, a major problem is that seed production outside its natural range is often very low and the cost of importing seed is prohibitive for many less developed countries (Slee 1967; Gallegos 1983; Okoro and Okali 1987; Zobel et al. Stahl 1987; Anoruo 1988).


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Immature Embryo Mature Embryo Benzyl Amino Purine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Berlyn
  • S. J. Kohls
  • A. O. Anoruo
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Greeley Memorial LaboratoryYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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