Segmentation of the Left Ventricle

  • Eugenio Picano


As with all methods of cardiac imaging, from ventriculography to scintigraphy, the left ventricle can be subdivided into a series of slices or segments for the purposes of the echocardiographic examination. Since a universally accepted standardization is lacking, the number of segments and the echocardiographic views employed for their identification vary markedly in the literature. The segmentation of the left ventricle has been proposed into 5, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, and 20 segments [1]. The resolution of the segmental approach is a function of the number of segments, so that it can range from 20% (in the 5-segment model) to 5% (in the 20-segment model). However, increasing the number of segments, and thus reducing their size, leads to an unacceptable complication of the analysis with a greater need for approximation and interpolation. A reasonable trade-off between accuracy and feasibility is represented by the 14-segment model proposed by Edwards and Tajik [2]. The wall segments are identified according to internal anatomic landmarks of the left ventricle in the standard parasternal (long-axis and short axis at the mitral, papillary, and apical levels), apical (five-, four-, three-, and two-chamber) and subcostal (long-axis and short axis) views (Fig. 1).


Left Ventricle Stress Echocardiography Interventricular Septum Inferior Wall Septal Perforator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugenio Picano
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Clinical PhysiologyCNRPisaItaly

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