Colorectal Biopsies

  • Teri A. Longacre
  • Cecilia M. Fenoglio-Preiser


THE ABILITY TO ENDOSCOPICALLY VISUALIZE the entire mucosal surface of the large bowel and to biopsy or cytologically sample normal and abnormal appearing areas has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of diseases of the colon and rectum. Generally, biopsy specimens fall into two major categories: (1) those derived from small, flexible punch biopsy forceps that produce mucosal specimens only, which may be utilized in all portions of the colon and rectum; and (2) large particle biopsies, aspiration, or suction-type, that provide larger specimens, which sample both the mucosa and submucosa. The latter biopsies are usually obtained from the rectum, and, if properly interpreted, may provide a great deal of information in the routine evaluation of colorectal diseases. In both types of specimens the presence or absence of disease and, if present, its pattern of distribution, extent, or severity can be assessed.


Ulcerative Colitis Lamina Propria Rectal Prolapse Ischemic Colitis Mucosal Biopsy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Whitehead R: Mucosal Biopsy of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 2nd edition, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fenoglio-Preiser CM, Lantz PE, Listrom MB, et al: Gastrointestinal Pathology — An Illustrated Text, New York, Raven Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fenoglio CM, Richart RM, Kaye GI: Comparative electron microscopic features of normal, hyperplastic, and adenomatous human colonic epithelium. II. Variations in surface architecture found by scanning electron microscopy. Gastroenterology 69:100–109, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goldman H, Ming SC: Mucins in normal and metaplastic gastrointestinal eptihelium: Histochemical distribution. Arch Pathol 85:580–586, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Selby WS, Janossy G, Jewell DP: Immunohistochemical characterization of intraepithelial lymphocytes of the human gastrointestinal tract. Gut 22:169–176, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saunders DR, Sillery J, Rachmilewitz, et al: Effect of bisacodyl on the structure and function of rodent and human intestine. Gastroenterology 72:849–856, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leriche M, Vedroede G, Sanchez G, et al: Changes in the rectal mucosa induced by hypertonic enemas. Dis Colon Rectum 21:227–236, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pike BF, Phillipi PJ, Lawson EH: Soap colitis. N Engl J Med 285:217–218, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meyer CT, Brand M, DeLuca VA, et al: Hydrogen peroxide colitis: a report of three patients. J Clin Gastroeterol 3:31–35, 1981.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mazur W, Sun KM, Robertson W: Oilinduced granuloma (Eloma) of the rectum: Report of four cases. Dis Colon Rectum 11:292–294, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Noshat A, Stone DH, Price HP: Self—induced lipoid granuloma of the rectum: Report of a case. JAMA 154:747–749, 1954.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beddce HL, Kay S, Kaye S: Barium granuloma of the rectum. Report of a case. JAMA 154:747–749, 1954.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weitzner S, Law DH: Barium granuloma of the rectum. Am J Dig Dis 17:17–22, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anani PA, Ribaux C, Gardiol D: Unusual intestinal talcosis. Am J Surg Pathol 11:890–894, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kumar NB, Nostrant TT, Appelman HD: The histopathologic spectrum of acute self—limited colitis (acute infectious—type colitis). Am J Surg Pathol 6:523–529, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Surawicz CM, Belic L: Rectal biopsy helps to distinguish acute self—limited colitis from idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 86:104–113, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nostrant TT, Kumar NB, Appelman HD: Histopathology differentiates acute self—limited colitis from ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 92:318–328, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Surawicz CM: Diagnosing colitis: Biopsy is best. Gastroenterology 92:538–540, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Medline A, Shin DH, Medline NM: Pseudomembranous colitis associated with antibiotics. Hum Pathol 7:693–703, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Taylor NS, Thorne GM, Bartlett JG: Comparison of two toxins produced by Clostridium difficile. Infect Immun 34:1036–1043, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Price AB, Davies DR: Pseudomembranous colitis. J Clin Pathol 30:1–12, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gebhard RL, Gerding DN, Olson MM, et al: Clinical and endoscopic findings in patients early in the course of Clostridium difficile associated pseudomembranous colitis. Am J Med 78:45–48, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Larson HE, Price AB: Pseudomembranous colitis: Presence of clostridial toxin. Lancet, 2:1312–1314, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bolton RP, Sheriff R, Read AE: Clostridium difcle associated diarrhea: A role in inflammatory bowel disease? Lancet 1:383–384, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bartlett JG: Clostridium difficile and inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 80:863–865, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rolny P, Jarnerot G, Mollby R: Occurrence of Clostridium difficile toxin in inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterology 18:61–64, 1983.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Trnka YM, LaMont JT: Association of Clostridium difficile toxin with symptomatic relapse of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroen—terology 80:693–696, 1981.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Riddell RH: The gastrointestinal tract, in Riddell RH (ed): Pathology of Disease Induced and Toxic Diseases, New York, Churchill Livingston, 1972, 515.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sakurai Y, Tsuchiya H, Ikegami F, et al: Acute right—side hemorrhagic colitis associated with oral administration of ampicillin. Dig Dis Sci 24:910–915, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Milles SS, Muggia AL, Spiro HM: Colonic histologic changes induced by 5—fluorouracil. Gastroenterology 43:391–399, 1962.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Floch MH, Hellman L: The effect of 5—fluorouracil in rectal mucosa. Gastroenterology 48:430–437, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pittman FE, El—Hashimi WK, Pittman JC: Studies of human amebiasis. Clinical and laboratory findings in eight cases of acute amebic colitis. Gastroenterology 65:581–587, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Istre GR, Kreiss K, Hopkins RS, et al: An outbreak of amebiasis spread by colonic irrigation at a chiropractic clinic. N Engl J Med 307:339–342, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brandt H, Perez Tamayo R: Pathology of human amebiasis. Hum Pathol 1:351–385, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Prathap K, Gilman R: The histopathology of acute intestinal amebiasis, Am J Pathol 60:229–245, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Allason-Jones E, Mindel A, Sargeaunt P, et al: Entamoeba histolytica as a commensal intestinal parasite in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 315:353–356, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Laughon BE, Druckman DA, Vernon A, et al: Prevalence of enteric pathogens in homosexual men with and without acquired immunodefi—ciency syndrome. Gastroenterology 94:984–993, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sohn N, Robilotti JG: THe gay bowel syndrome. A review of colonic and rectal conditions in 200 male homosexuals. Am J Gastroenterol 67:478–484, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Quinn TC, Stamm WE, Goodell SE, et al: The polymicrobial origin of intestinal infections in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 309:576–582, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kilpatrick ZM: Gonorrheal proctitis. N Engl J Med 287:967–969, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Levine JS, Smith PD, Brugge WE: Chronic proctitis in male homosexuals due to lymphogranuloma venereum. Gastroenterology 79:563–566, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Quinn TC, Goodell SE, Mkrtichian E, et al: Chlamydia trachomatis proctitis. N Engl J Med 305:195–200, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smith D: Infectious syphilis of the rectum. Report of a case. Dis Col Rect 8:57–58, 1963.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nazemi MM, Musher DM, Schell RF, et al: Syphilitic proctitis in a homosexual. JAMA 231:389, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hovind-Hougen K, Birch-Anderson A, Henrick-Nielson R, et al: Intestinal spirochetosis: Morphologic characterization and cultivation of the spirochete brachyspira aalborgi gen. nov., sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol 16:1127–1136, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lee FD, Kraszewski A, Gordon J, et al: Intestinal spirochaetosis. Gut 12:126–133, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kirkham N, Cotton DWK, Hudson MJ: Intestinal spirochetosis in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 310:392–393, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Goodell SE, Quinn TC, Mkrtichian E, et al: Herpes simplex virus proctitis in homosexual men. Clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histopathologic features. N Engl J Med 308:868–871, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jacobs E: Anal infections caused by herpes simplex virus. Dis Col Rectum 19:151–157, 1976.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gal AA, Meyer PR, Taylor CR: Papilloma virus antigens in anorectal condyloma and carcinoma in homosexual men. JAMA 257:337–340, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beckmann AM, Myerson D, Daling JR, et al: Detection of human papilloma virus DNA in carcinoma by in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes. J Med Virol 16:265–273, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Medley G: Anal smear test to diagnose occult anorectal infection with human papillomavirus in men. Br J Vener Dis 60:205, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wong B, Edwards FF, Kiehn TE, et al: Continuous high—grade mycobacterium avium—intracellulare bacteremia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Med 78:35–40, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wolke A, Meyers S, Adelsberg BR, et al: Mycobacterium avium—intracellulare—associated colitis in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol 6:225–229, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Polis MA, Tauzon CU: Clues to the early diagnosis of mycobacterium avium—intracellulare infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol 6:225–229, 1984.Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Polis MA, Tuazon CU: Clues to the early diagnosis of mycobacterium avium—intracellulare infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Pathol Lab Med 109:465–466, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Foucar E, Mukai K, Foucar K, et al: Colon ulceration in lethal cytomegalovirus infection. Am J Clin Pathol 76:788–801, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Freeman HJ, Shnitka TK, Piercey JRA, et al: Cytomegalovirus infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a patient with late onset immunodeficiencyu syndrome. Gastroenterology 73:1397–1403, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Rosen P, Armstrong D, Rice N: Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus infection. Arch Intern Med 132:274–276, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Hinnant KL, Rotterdam HZ, Bell ET, et al: Cytomegalovirus infection of the alimentary tract: A clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Gastroent 81:944–950, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Robey SS, Gage WR, Kuhajda FP: Comparison of immunoperoxidase and DNA in situ hybridization techniques in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus colitis. Am J Clin Pathol 89:666–671, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Roberts WH, Hammond S, Sneddon JM, et al: In situ DNA hybridization for cytomegalovirus in colonoscopic biopsies. Arch Pathol Lab Med 112:1106–1109, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Sidi S, Graham JH, Razvi SA, et al: Cytomegalovirus infection of the colon associated with ulcerative colitis. Arch Surg 114:857–859, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Berk T, Gordon SJ, Choi HY, et al: Cytomegalovirus infection of the colon: A possible role in exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 80:355–360, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Current WL, Reese NC, Ernst JB, et al: Human cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent and immunodeficient persons: Studies of an outbreak and experimental transmission. N Engl J Med 308:1252–1257, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Soave R, Danner RL, Honig CL, et al: Cryptosporidiosis in homosexual men. Ann Intern Med 100:504–5111, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Penna FJ: Blastomycosis of the colon resembling clinically ulcerative colitis. Gut 20:896–899, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Orchard JL, Luparello F, Brunskill D: Malabsorption syndrome occurring in the course of disseminated histoplasmosis. Case report and review of the literature. Am J Med 66:331–336, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Eras P, Goldstein MJ, Sherlock P: Candida infection of the gastrointestinal tract. Medicine 51:367–379, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Smith JM: Mycoses of the alimentary tract. Gut 10:1035–1040, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Nelson JA, Wiley CA, Reynolds-Kohnler C, et al: Human immunodeficiency virus detected in bowel epithelium from patients with gastrointesti—nal symptoms. Lancet 1:259–262, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Roth JLA: Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s colitis, In Kirsner JB, Shorter RG (eds): Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 2nd edition,Philadelphia, Lea and Fibiger, 1980, 5.Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    Kirsner JB, Shorter RG: Recent developments in “non—specific” inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 306:775–785, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Taylor KB: Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease of the colon: Symptoms, signs, and laboratory aspects, in Kirsner JB, Shorter RG (eds): Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 2nd edition, Philadelphia, Lea and Fibiger, 1980, 1411.Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Rubio CA, Nylander G, Johanssen C, et al: Nondysplastic villous changes in endoscopic biopsies in ulcerative colitis with carcinoma. Acta Path Midrobiol Immunol Scan 90:277–282, 1982.Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Lee RG: Villous regeneration in ulcerative colitis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 111:276–278, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Schachter H, Kirsner JB: Definitions of inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Gas—troenterology 68:591–600, 1975.Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    Morson BC: Histopathology of Crohn’s disease. Proc R Soc Med 61:79–81, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Price AB: Overlap in the spectrum of non—specific inflammatory bowel disease — “colitis indeterminate.” J Clin Pathol 31:567–577, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Lockhart-Mummery HE, Morson BC: Crohn’s disease of the large intestine. Gut 5:493–509, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Chambers TJ, Morson BC: Large bowel biopsy in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Invest Cell Pathol 3:159–173, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Rotterdam H, Korelitz BI, Sommers SC: Microgranulomas in grossly normal rectal mucosa in Crohn’s disease. Amer J Clin Pathol 67:550–554, 1977.Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    Surawicz CM, Meisel JL, Ylvisaker T, et al: Rectal biopsy in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease: Value of multiple biopsies and serial sectioning. Gastroenterology 81:66–71, 1981.Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Haggitt RC: The differential diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, in Norris HT (ed): Pathology of the Colon, Small Intestine and Anus, New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1983, 21.Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    Lockhart-Mummery HE, Morson BC: Crohn’s disease (regional enteritis) of the large intestine and its distinction from ulcerative colitis. Gut 1:87–105, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Bargen JA: Chronic ulcerative colitis complicated by malignant neoplasia. Arch Surg 17:561–576, 1928.Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    Bargen JA, Gage RP: Carcinoma and ulcerative colitis: Prognosis. Gastroenterology 39:385–393, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Goldgraber MB, Kirsner JB: Carcinoma of the colon in ulcerative colitis. Cancer 17:657–665, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Hinton JM: Carcinoma in ulcerative colitis. Proc Roy Soc Med 59:632–633, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    MacDougall IPM: The cancer risk in ulcerative colitis. Lancet 2:655–658, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Kewenter J, Ahlman H, Hulten L: Cancer risk in extensive ulcerative colitis. Ann Surg 188:824–828, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    van Heerden JA, Beart RW, Jr: Carcinoma of the colon and rectum complicating chronic ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 68:1127–1136, 1975.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Farmer RG, Hawk WA, Turnbull RB Jr: Carcinoma associated with mucosal ulcerative colitis and with transmural colitis and enteritis (Crohn’s disease). Cancer 28:289–294, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Fenoglio-Preiser CM, Perzin K, Pascal RR: Tumors of the Large and Small Intestine, AFIP Fascicle, 2nd Series (in press).Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    Devroede GJ, Taylor WF, Sauer WG, et al: Cancer risk and life expectancy of children with ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med 285:17–21, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Weedon DD, Shorter RG, Ilstrup DM, et al: Crohn’s disease and cancer. N Engl J Med 289:1099–1103, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Greenstein AJ, Sachar DB, Smith H, et al: Patterns of neoplasia in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Cancer 46:403–407, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Gyde SN, Prior P, Maccartney JC, et al: Malignancy in Crohn’s disease. Gut 21:1024–1029, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Goldman LI, Bralow SP, Cox W, et al: Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel complicating Crohn’s disease. Cancer 26:1119–1125, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Greenstein AJ, Sachar DB, Smith H, et al: A comparison of cancer risk in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Cancer 48:2742–2745, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Riddell RH, Goldman H, Ransohoff DF, et al: Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: Standardized classification with provisional clinical applications. Hum Pathol 14:931–968, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Rosenstock E, Farmer RG, Petras R, et al: The surveillance for colonic carcinoma in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 89:1342–1346, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Blackstone MO, Riddell RH, Rogers BHG, et al: Dysplasia—associated lesion or mass (DALM) detected by colonsocopy in long—standing ulcerative colitis: An indication for colectomy. Gastroenterology 80:366–374, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Collins RH, Jr, Feldman M, Fordtran JS: Colon cancer, dysplasia, and surveillance in patients with ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med 316:1654–1658, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Marshak RH, Linder A, Maklansky D, et al: Eo—sinophilic gastroenteritis. JAMA 245:1677–1680, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Naylor AR, Pollet JE: Eosinophilic colitis. Dis Colon Rectum 28:615–618, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Zora JA, O’Connell EJ, Sachs MI, et al: Eosino—philic gastroenteritis: A case report and review of the literature. Ann Allergy 53:45–47, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Norris H: Ischemic bowel disease: its spectrum, in Yardley JH, Morson BC, Abell MR (eds): The Gastrointestinal Tract. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co., 1977, 15–30.Google Scholar
  109. 108.
    Saegesser F, Roenspies U, Robinson JWL: Ischemic disease of thelarge intestine. Pathobiol Annu 9:303–337, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Bynum TE, Jacobsen ED: Nonocclusive intestinal ischemia. Arch Intern Med 139:281–282, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Ming SC: Hemorrhagic necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract and its relation to cardiovascular status. Circulation 32:332–341, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Bounous G: Mucosal injury in low flow states. Can J Surg 17:434, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Robinson JWL, Mirkovitch V, Winistorfer B, et al: Response of the intestinal mucosa to ischaemia. Gut 22:512–527, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Nelson RL, Schuler JJ: Ischemic proctitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 154:27–33, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Whitehead R: The pathology of ischemia of the intestine, in Sommers SC (ed): Pathology Annual, New York, Appleton—Century—Crofts, 1976, 1–52.Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    Ming SC, Bonakdarpour A: The evolution of lesions in intestinal ischemia. Arch Pathol Lab Med 101:40–43, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Glotzer DJ, Glick ME, Goldman H: Proctitis and colitis following diversion of the fecal stream. Gastroenterology 80:438–441, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Goldman H, Antonioli DA: Mucosal biopsy of the rectum, colon, and distal ileum. Hum Pathol 13:981–1012, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Krishnamurthy S, Schuffler MD: Pathology of neuromuscular disorders of the small intestine and colon. Gastroenterology 93:610–639, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Louw JH, Cywes S: Embryology and anomalies of the intestine, in Berk JE (ed.): Bockus Gastroenterology, Volume 3, 4th edition, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1985, 1439.Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    Kosloske AM, Goldthorn JF: Early diagnosis and treatment of Hirschsprung’s disease in New Mex—ico. Surgery 158:233–237, 1984.Google Scholar
  122. 121.
    Blisard KS, Kleinman R: Hirschsprung’s disease: A clinical and pathologic review. Hum Pathol 17:1189–1191, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    Hall CL, Lampert PW: Immunohistochemistry as an aid in the diagnosis of Hirschprung’s disease. Am J Clin Pathol 83:177–181, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Kluck P, vanMuijen GNP, VanDerKamp AWM, et al: Hirschsprung’s disease studied with monoclonal antineurofilament antibodies on tissue sec—tions. Lancet 3:652–654, 1984.Google Scholar
  125. 124.
    Ikawa H, Yokoyama J, Morikawa Y, et al: A quantitative study of acetylcholine in Hirschsprung’s disease. J Pediatr Surg 15:48–52, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Scharli AF, Meier-Ruge W: Localized and disseminated forms of neuronal intestinal dysplasia mimicking Hirschsprung’s disease. J Pediatr Surg 16:164–170, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 126.
    Fitzgibbons PL, Chandrasoma PT: Familial visceral myopathy. Evidence of diffuse involvement of intestinal smooth muscle. Am J Surg Path 11:846–854, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Lindstrom CG: “Collagenous colitis” with watery diarrhea — a new entity? Pathol Eur 11:87–89, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Rosk-Madsen J, Grave O, Hansen MG, et al: Colonic transport of water and electrolytes in a patient with secretory diarrhea due to collagenous colitis. Dig Dis Sci 28:1141–1146, 1983.Google Scholar
  130. 129.
    Weidner N, Smith J, Pattee B: Sulfasalazine in treatment of collagenous colitis. Am J Med 77:162–166, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Teglbjaerg PS, Thaysen EH, Jensen HH: Devel—opment of collagenous colitis in sequential bi—opsy specimens. Gastroenterology 87:703–709, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    van den Oord JJ, Geboes K, Desmet VJ: Collage—nous colitis: An abnormal collagen table? Two new cases and review of the literature. Am J Gastroenterol 77:377–381, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Wang KK, Perrault J, Carpenter HA, et al: Collagenous colitis: A clinicopathologic correlation. Mayo Clin Proc 62:665–671, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Flejou JF, Grimaud JA, Molas G, et al: Collagenous colitis. Ultrastructural study and collagen immunotyping of four cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med 108:977–982, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Foerster A, Fausa O: Collagenous colitis. Pathol Res Pract 180:99–106, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Gardiner GW, Goldberg R, Currie D, et al: Colonic carcinoma associated with an abnormal collagen table. Collagenous colitis. Cancer 54:2973–2977, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Gledhill A, Cole FM: Significance of basement membrane thickening in the human colon. Gut 25:1085–1088, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Wang HH, Owings DV, Antoniolli DA, et al: Increased subepithelial collagen deposition is not specific for collagenous colitis. Mod Pathol 1:329–335, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Hwang WS, Kelly JK, Shaffer EA, et al: Collage—nous colitis: A disease of pericryptal fibroblast sheath? J Pathol 149:33–40, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 139.
    Jessurun J, Yardley JH, Giardiello FM, et al: Chronic colitis with thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer (collagenous colitis): Histopathological findings in 15 patients. Hum Pathol 18:839–848, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Jessurun J, Yardley JH, Lee EL, et al: Fordtran JS: Microscopic and collagenous colitis: different names for the same condition? Gastroenterology 91:1583–1584, 1986 (letter).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Kingham JGC, Levison DA, Morson BC, et al: Collagenous colitis. Gut 27:570–577, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 142.
    Rams H, Rogers AI, Ghandur-Mnaymneh L: Clinical review: Collagenous colitis. Ann Intern Med 106:108–113, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Nielsen VT, Vetner M, Harlsof E: Collagenous colitis. Histopathology 4:83–86, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Ford MJ, Anderson JR, Gilmour HM, et al: Clin—ical spectrum of “Solitary Ulcer” of the rectum. Gastroenterology 84:1533–1540, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Saul SH, BC Sollenberger: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. Its clinical and pathological underdiagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1:411–421, 1985.Google Scholar
  147. 146.
    Franzin G, Dina R, Scarpa A, et al: The evolution of the solitary ulcer of the rectum. An endoscopic and histopathological study. Endoscopy 14:131–134, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 147.
    Rutter KRP, Riddell RH: The solitary ulcer syndrome of the rectum. Clin Gastroenterol 4:505–530, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Levine DS: “Solitary” rectal ulcer syndrome. Are “solitary” rectal ulcer syndrome and “localized” colitis cystica profunda analogous syndromes caused by rectal prolapse? Gastroenterology 92:243–253, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 149.
    Epstein SE, Ascari WQ, Ablow RC, et al: Colitis cystica profunda. Am J Clin Pathol 45:186–201, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 150.
    Wayte DM, Helwig EB: Colitis cystica profunda. Am J Clin Pathol 48:159–169, 1967.Google Scholar
  152. 151.
    Herman AH, Nabseth DC: Colitis cystica profunda: Localized, segmental, and diffuse. Arch Surg 106:337–341, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Silver H, Stolar J: Distinguishing features of well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum and colitis cystica profunda. Am J Clin Pathol 51:493–500, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 153.
    Kirste G, Wilms H, Keller HJ: Gastrointestinal complications in patients with kidney transplantation and chronic renal failure, in Eigler FW, Jakubowski HD (eds): Surgery in Chronic Renal Failure. New York, Thieme—Stratton, 1984, 175–177.Google Scholar
  155. 154.
    Komorowski RA, Cohen EB, Kauffman HM, et al: Gastrointestinal complications in renal transplant recipients. Am J Clin Pathol 86:161–167, 1978.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lee RG: The colitis of Behcet’s syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol 10:888–893, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sokol RJ, Farrell MK, McAdams, AJ: An unusual presentation of Wegener’s granulomatosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 87:426–432, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Fauci AS, Wolff SM: Wegener’s granulomatosis: Studies in eighteen patients and a review of the literature. Medicine 52:535–561, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Fahey JL, Leonard E, Churg J, et al: Wegener’s granulomatosis. Am J Med 17:168–179, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lieberman E: Hemolyticuremic syndrome. J Pediatr 809:1–16, 1972.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ray CG, Tucker VL, Harris DJ, et al: Enteroviruses associated with the hemolytic—uremic syndrome. Pediatrics 46:378–388, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Koster F, Levin J, Walker L, et al: Hemolytic—uremic syndrome after shigellosis. Relation to endotozxemia and circulating immune complexes. N Engl J Med 298:927–933, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Whitington PF, Friedman AL, Chesney RW: Gastrointestinal disease in the hemolytic—uremic syndrome. Gastroenterology 76:728–733, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kendall PA, Reid I, Wright JE, et al: Gangrenous colitis in the haemolytic—uremic syndrome. Med J Aust 140:543–544, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Dale GE, Shulman HM, McDonald GB, et al: Gastrointestinal graft vs. host disease in man: A clinicopathologic study of the rectal biopsy. Am J Surg Pathol 3:291–299, 1979.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Epstein RJ, McDonald GB, Sale GE, et al: The diagnostic accuracy of the rectal biopsy in acute graft—versus—host disease: A prospective study of thirteen patients. Gastroenterology 78:765–771, 1980.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ament ME, Ochs HD, Davis SD: Structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract in primary immunodeficiency syndromes: A study of 39 patients. Medicine 52:227–248, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Ament ME, Ochs HD: Gastrointestinal manifestations of chronic granulomatous disease. N Engl J Med 288:382–387, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Park RW, Grand RJ: Gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis: a review. Gastroenterology 81:1143–1161, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Parkins RA, Eidelman S, Rubin CE, et al: The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis by rectal suction biopsy. Lancet 2:851–856, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Finlay-Jones LR, Blackwell JB, Papdimitriou JM: Malakoplakia of the colon. Am J Clin Pathol 50:320–329, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Lou TY, Teplitz C: Malakoplakia: pathogenesis and ultrastructural morphogenesis. A problem of altered macrophage (phagolysomal) response. Hum Pathol 5:191–207, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    McClure J: Malakoplakia. J Pathol 140:275–330, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Biggar WD, Keating A, Bear R: Malakoplakia: Evidence for an acquired disease secondary to immunosuppression. Transplantation 31:109–112, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teri A. Longacre
  • Cecilia M. Fenoglio-Preiser

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations