Advertisement

Continents and Oceans

  • Adrian E. Scheidegger

Abstract

The present distribution of continents and oceans poses many puzzling problems. Continents are undoubtedly the most permanent features of the Earth’s surface and therefore their existence probably dates back to the Earth’s early history. This very fact makes an explanation of their presence rather difficult: nothing certain is known about the origin of the Earth, and therefore any attempt at establishing a theory of continents is tied up with speculations.

Keywords

Solar System Convection Current Continental Drift Slip Line Field Mountain Building 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. 1.
    Smart, W. M.: The Origin of the Earth, 239 pp. London: Cambridge University Press 1951.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weizsäcker, C. F. v.: Z. Astrophys. 22, 319 (1944).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chandrasekhar, S.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 18, 94 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 1.
    Kuiper, G. P.: Chapter 8 in Astrophysics, ed. by Hynek. New York: McGraw-Hill Publ. Co. 1951.Google Scholar
  5. 2.
    Hoyle, F.: Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 40, 265 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 3.
    Jeffreys, H.: The Earth, 2nd ed. London: Cambridge University Press 1929.Google Scholar
  7. 1.
    Hoyle, F.: Month. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 106, 406 (1946).Google Scholar
  8. 1.
    Urry, W. D.: Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un. 30, 471 (1949).Google Scholar
  9. 2.
    Birch, F.: J. Geophys. Res. 56, 107 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 2.
    Jacobs, J. A.: Pub. Bur. Centr. Séismol. Int. A 19, 155 (1956).Google Scholar
  11. 1.
    Jacobs, J. A.: Pub. Bur Centr. Séismol. Int. A 19, 155 (1956).Google Scholar
  12. 2.
    Birch, F. P.: Geophysics 19, 645 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 3.
    Fesenxov, V. G.: Astron. Zhur. 34, No. 1, 105 (1957).Google Scholar
  14. 4.
    Lyubimova, E. A.: Geiphys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 1, 115 (1958). — 21. Int. Geol. Congr. (Norden), Doll. Sov. Geol. 2, Sec. 2, 14 (1960).Google Scholar
  15. 5.
    Macdonald, G. J. F.: J. Geophys. Res. 64, 1967 (1959).Google Scholar
  16. 8.
    Safronov, V. S.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR., Ser. Geofiz. 1959, No. 1, 139 (1959).Google Scholar
  17. 7.
    Ringwood, A. E.: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 20, 241 (1960).Google Scholar
  18. 1.
    Darwin, G. H.: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., Part ii, p. 532 (1879).Google Scholar
  19. 2.
    Quiring, H. L.: Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 62, 81 (1952). — Z. dtsch. geol. Ges. 105, 203 (1953). — Neues Jb. Geol. Paläont. Min. 3, 140 (1961).Google Scholar
  20. 3.
    Fisher, O.: Nature, Lond. 25, 243 (1882).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 4.
    Bowie, W.: Sci. Monthly 41, 444 (1935).Google Scholar
  22. 5.
    Escher, B. G.: Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 60, 352 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 6.
    Haarmann, E.: Die Oszillationstheorie. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke 1930Google Scholar
  24. 7.
    Jeffreys, H.: The Earth, 3rd ed. London: Cambridge Univ. Press; 1962 p. 234Google Scholar
  25. 1.
    Wegener, A.: Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane. 3. Aufl. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg und Sohn 1922.Google Scholar
  26. 1.
    Gutenberg, B.: Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 16, 239 (1927); 18, 281 (1927). — Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 47, 1587 (1936).Google Scholar
  27. 2.
    Evison, F. F.: Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc. 3, 155 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 3.
    Bucher, W. H.: Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un. 31, 495 (1950).Google Scholar
  29. 4.
    Wilson, J. T.: Nature, Lond. 179, 228 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 1.
    Sapper, K.: Vulkankunde. Stuttgart 1927; S. 269.Google Scholar
  31. 1.
    Harrison, E. R.: Nature, Lond. 188, 1064 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 2.
    Gilvarry, J. J.: Nature, Lond. 190, 1048 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 3.
    Hills, G. F. S.: The Formation of Continents by Convection. London: E. Arnold und Co. 1947.Google Scholar
  34. 1.
    Vening Meinesz, F. A.: Versi. K. Akad. Wet. 53, No. 4 (1944).Google Scholar
  35. 1.
    Schemegger, A. E.: Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un. 33, 585 (1952).Google Scholar
  36. 1.
    Cf. e.g. Basset, A. B.: A Treatise of Hydrodynamics. Cambridge 1888.Google Scholar
  37. 2.
    Pekeris, C. L.: Month. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., Geophys. Suppl. 3, 343 (1935).Google Scholar
  38. 1.
    Chandraseikhar, S.: Phil. Mag. 43, 1317 (1952).Google Scholar
  39. 2.
    Urey, H. C.: Phil. Mag. 44, 227 (1953).Google Scholar
  40. 3.
    Latynina, L. A.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR., Ser. Geofiz. 1958, 1085 (1958).Google Scholar
  41. 1.
    Rikitake, T., and K. Hoeai: Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst. 38, 403 (1960).Google Scholar
  42. 2.
    Licht, A. L.: J. Geophys. Res. 65, 349 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 3.
    Woolnough, W. G.: Bull. Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol. 30, 1981 (1946). The present discussion is after the author’s Handbuch-article.Google Scholar
  44. 1.
    Davison, C.: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 178, 240 (1888).Google Scholar
  45. 2.
    Scheidegger, A.E.: Handbuch der Physik, vol. 47, p. 283. Berlin-GöttingenHeidelberg: Springer 1956.Google Scholar
  46. 3.
    Zoelly, R.: Über ein Knickungsproblem an der Kugelschale. Diss. E. T. H. Zürich, 1915.Google Scholar
  47. 4.
    Leutert, W.: Die erste und zweite Randwertaufgabe der linearen Elastizitätstheorie für die Kugelschale. Diss. E. T. H. Zürich, 1948.Google Scholar
  48. Halm, J. K. E.: J. Astron. Soc. S. Afr. 4, 1 (1935). — Hilgenberg, O. C.: Vom wachsenden Erdball. Berlin, 1933.Google Scholar
  49. 1.
    Heezen, B. C.: Preprints Int. Oceanogr. Cong. 26 (1959).Google Scholar
  50. 2.
    Egyed, L.: Geofis. Pura Appl. 33, 42 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 3.
    Carey, S. W.: J. Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol. 10, 95 (1962).Google Scholar
  52. 4.
    Carey, S. W., and J. A. O’keefe: Science 130, 978 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 5.
    Groeber, P.: Bol. Inf. Petrolif. No. 311, 101; No. 312, 181 (1959).Google Scholar
  54. 6.
    Wilson, J. T.: Nature, Lond. 185, 880 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 7.
    Hilgenberg, O. C.: Vom wachsenden Erdball. Berlin 1933.Google Scholar
  56. 8.
    Egyed, L.: Geofis. Pura Appl. 45, 115 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 1.
    Matschinski, M.: Ann. Geofis., Roma 7, 1 (1954).Google Scholar
  58. 2.
    Setting Poisson’s ratio rn = 0.25 which is a good value for rocks.Google Scholar
  59. 1.
    Beck, A. E.: J. Geophys. Res. 66, 1485 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 2.
    Cook, M. A., and A. J. Eardley: J. Geophys. Res. 66, 3907 (1961).Google Scholar
  61. 3.
    Jordan, P.: Schwerkraft und Weltall. Braunschweig 1952. — Naturwiss. 48, 417 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 1.
    Dicke, R. H.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 355 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 2.
    Dicke, R. H.: J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48, 213 (1958).Google Scholar
  64. 3.
    Joxscx, H. C.: Z. Geophys. 21, 109 (1955).Google Scholar
  65. 4.
    Beck, A. E.: J. Geophys. Res. 66, 1485 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1963

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian E. Scheidegger
    • 1
  1. 1.University of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations