Compaction and Diagenesis

  • B. Velde


This chapter follows logically that dealing with the origins of clay in the sedimentation environment. Sedimentation followed by more sedimentation leads to diagenesis, burial diagenesis which is the most important diagenesis for silicates. What is the nature of the change in state which brings about new minerals upon their burial? As sediments accumulate in a basin (the basic concept of a sedimentary basin being a recipient that has a bottom which continues to grow deeper with time, a sort of un-filling cup; otherwise the recipient would fill up and the story would end) they are subjected to two major changes in their environment. First as burial proceeds, sediment temperature increases. As any miner knows, deep mines are hotter than shallow ones, and in fact the Earth is hotter inside than at its skin (i.e. the solid gas interface known as the Earth’s surface). So as sediments get buried in basins, or on the edges in continents, they get hotter.


Clay Mineral Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Basin Amorphous Silica Clay Mineralogy 
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Suggested Reading

Books where one can follow the changes in diagenesis experienced by clays

  1. Chilingarian GV, Wolf KH (1988) Diagenesis I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 591 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Sudo T, Shimoda S (1978) Diagenesis in sediments and sedimentary rocks.Google Scholar
  3. Elsevier, Amsterdam Velde B (1985) Clay minerals: a physico-chemical explanation of their occurrence. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 427 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Weaver CE (1989) Clays, muds and shales, developments in sedimentology 44. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 819 ppGoogle Scholar

Zeolite minerals and silica polymorphs

  1. Aoyagi K, Kazama T (1980) Transformatonal changes of clay minerals, zeolites and silica minerals during diagenesis. Sedimentology 27: 179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrer RM (1982) Hydrothermal chemistry of zeolites. Academic Press, London, 360 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Gottardi G, Galli E (1985) Natural zeolites. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 409 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Iijima A, Utada M (1966) Zeolites in sedimentary rocks, with reference to depositional environments and zonal distribution. Sedimentology 7: 327–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mitzutani S (1970) Silica minerals in the early stages of diagenesis. Sedimentology 15: 419–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mitzutani S (1977) Progressive ordering of cristobalitic silica in early stages of diagenesis. Contrib Mineral Petrol 61: 129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Velde B, Iijima A (1988) Comparison of clay and zeolite mineral occurrences in Neogene age sediments from several deep wells. Clays Clay Min 36: 337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Organic matter

  1. Bjorlykke K (1989) Sedimentology and petroleum geology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, 363 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. England WA, Fleet AJ (eds) (1991) Petroleum migration. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 59: 280Google Scholar
  3. Hunt JM (1979) Petroleum geochemistry and geology. Freeman, San Francisco, 617 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Selley RC (1989) Elements of petroleum geology. Freeman, San Francisco, 488 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Tissot G, Welt DE (1984) Petroleum formation and occurrence. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Velde

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