Prothetischer Herzklappenersatz

  • F. A. Flachskampf
  • P. Hanrath

Zusammenfassung

Seit dem ersten Ersatz einer Aortenklappe durch Dwight Harken sowie einer Mitralklappe durch Albert Starr im Jahr 1960 ist der prothetische Klappenersatz zum Routineeingriff geworden. In Deutschland wurden 1997 13.482 Klappenoperationen durchgeführt (64% Aortenklappenersatz, 11,2% Mehrklappenersatz).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur zu Sektion X Kap. 78

  1. Abascal VM et al. (1988) Mitral regurgitation after percutaneous ballon mitral valvuloplasty in adults: Evaluation by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 11: 257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abascal VM et al. (1990) Prediction of successful outcome in 130 patients undergoing percutaneous balloon mitral valvulotomy. Circulation 82: 448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdulla AM, Frank MJ, Erdin RA jr, Canedo MJ (1981) Clinical significance and hemodynamic correlates of the third heart sound gallop in aortic regurgitation. A guide to optimal timing of cardiac catheterization. Circulation 64: 464–471Google Scholar
  4. Abramson SV, Burke JB, Pauletto FJ, Kelly JJ jr (1995) Use of multiple views in the echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary artery systolic pressure. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 8: 55–6oGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen H, Harris A, Leatham A (1974) Significance and prognosis of an isolated late systolic murmur: A 9–22 year follow-up. Br Heart J 36: 525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Altrichter PM, Olson LT, Edwards WD, Puga FJ, Danielson GK (1989) Surgical pathology of the pulmonary valve: a study of n6 cases spanning 15 years [see comments] Mayo Clin Proc 64: 1352–1360Google Scholar
  7. Aranki SF, Rizzo RJ Couper, GS Adams, DH Collins, JJ Gildea, JS Kinchla, NM Cohn, LH (1993) Aortic valve replacement in the elderly. Circulation 88, part 2: 17–23Google Scholar
  8. Aranki SF, Rizzo RJ Couper, GS Adams, DH Collins, JJ jr, Gildea JS, Kinchla NM, Cohn LH (1993) Aortic valve replacement in the elderly: Effect of gender and coronary artery disease on operative mortality. Circulation 88: II 17–23Google Scholar
  9. ASCS (1995) Practice guidelines in cardiothoracic surgery. Valvular heart disease. Ad Hoc Committee for Cardiothoracic Surgical Practice Guidelines. Ann Thorac Surg 59: 1264–1271Google Scholar
  10. Bache RJ, Wang Y, Jorgensen CR (1971) Hemodynamic effects of exer- cise in isolated valvular aortic stenosis. Circulation 44: 1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bahl VK, Chandra S, Sharma S (1993) Combined dilatation of rheumatic mitral and tricuspid stenosis with Inoue balloon catheter. Int J Cardiol 42: 178–381Google Scholar
  12. Barletta GA, Gagliardi R, Benvenuti L, Fantini F (1985) Cerebral ischemic attacks as a complication of aortic and mitral valve prolapse. Stroke 16: 219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barlow JB, Bosman CK, Pocock WA et al. (1968) Late systolic murmur and non ejective (mid-late) systolic clicks: Br Heart J 3o: 203Google Scholar
  14. Bech-Hanssen O, Wallentin I, Larsson S, Caidahl K (1998) Reference Doppler echocardiographic values for St. Jude Medical, Omnicarbon, and Biocor prosthetic valves in the aortic position. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 11: 466–477Google Scholar
  15. Beckman RH, Lloyd TR (1999) Balloon valvuloplasty and stenting for congenital heart disease. In: Topol EJ, ed. Textbook of interventional cardiology. 3. rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders 85o - 868Google Scholar
  16. Beiser GD, Epsetin SE, Stampfer M (1968) Studies on digitalis. XVIII. Effects of ouabain on the hemodynamic response to exercise in patients with mitral stenosis in normal sinus rhythm. N Engl J Med 278: 131Google Scholar
  17. Bernard M, Martin P, Cornuau C, Poirot G, Valois M (1985) Traumatic tricuspid insufficiency. Review of the literature, apropos of a case. Ann Cardiol Angeiol 34: 551–555Google Scholar
  18. Bisset GS III et al. (198o) Clinical spectrum and long term follow-up of isolated mitral valve prolapse in 119 children. Circulation 62: 423Google Scholar
  19. Block PC, Palacios IF (1994) Valvuloplasty, Congenital and Pericardial Heart Disease, in: Topol, E. J. [editor] Textbook of interventional cardiology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  20. Bloomfield P et al. (1991) Twelve-years comparison of a Bjork-Shiley mechanical heart valve with porcine bioprotheses. N Engl J Med 324: 573Google Scholar
  21. Bonow RO, Epstein SE (1987) Is preoperative left ventricular function predictive of survival and functional results after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation? J Am Coll Cardiol lo: 713–716Google Scholar
  22. Bonow RO, Rosing DR, Kent KM, Epstein SE (1982) Timing of operation for chronic aortic regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 5o: 325–336Google Scholar
  23. Bonow RO, Picone AL, McIntosh CL et al. (1985) Survival and functional results after valve replacement for aortic regurgitation from 1976 to 1983: impact of preoperative left ventricular function. Circulation 72: 1244–1256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bonow RO, Lakatos E, Maron BJ, Epstein SE (1991) Serial long-term assessment of the natural history of asymptomatic patients with chronic aortic regurgitation and normal left ventricular systolic function. Circulation 84: 1625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bonow RO, Carabello B, de Leon AC Jr et al. (1998) ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines (committee on management of patients with valvular heart disease). J Am Coll Cardiol 32: 1486–588Google Scholar
  26. Bonow RO, Carabello B, de Leon AC Jr et al. (1998) ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: exectuive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease). Circulation 98: 1949–1984Google Scholar
  27. Borow KM, Green LH, Mann T et al. (1980) End-systolic volume as a predictor of postoperative left ventricular performance in volume overload from valvular regurgitation. Am J Med 68: 655–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bortolotti U, Valente M, Agozzini L (1984) Rheumatoid valve steno-sis requiring valve replacement. Am Heart J 107: 1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bouderulas H, Reynolds I, Mazzaferri E et al. (1980) Metabolic studies in mitral valve prolapse syndrome. A neuroendocrine cardiovascular process. Circulation 61: 1250Google Scholar
  30. Boudoulas H, Kolibash AJ, Baher et al. (1989) Mitral valve prolapse and the mitral valve prolapse syndrome: A diagnostic classification and pathogenesis of symptoms. Am Heart J 118: 796Google Scholar
  31. Brandt D, Nicoletti R, Klein W et al. (1984) Nichtinvasive Quantifizierung der Regurgitation bei insuffizienten Herzklappen mit Hilfe von Radionukliden. Herz Kreisl 16: 3–8Google Scholar
  32. Braunwald E (1997). Valvular heart disease. In: Braunwald E (ed) Heart disease: A textbook of cardiovascular medicine, 4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1007–1076Google Scholar
  33. Brocacci PM, Savran SV, Schneter SL et al. (1976) Prevalence of clinical mitral valve prolapse in 1169 young women. N Engl J Med 294.1o86–1o88Google Scholar
  34. Burger W, Illert S, Teupe C, Kneissl GD, Kober G, Schräder R (1993) Rechtsventrikuläre Funktion bei Patienten mit rheumatischer Mitralstenose. Effekt der Ballon-Mitralvalvuloplastie. Z Kardiol 82: 545–451Google Scholar
  35. Calderwood SB, Swinski LA, Waternaux CM, Karchmer AW, Buckley MJ (1985) Risk factors for the development of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Circulation 72: 31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cannegieter SC, Rosendaal FR, Briet E (1994) Thromboembolic and bleeding complications in patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses. Circulation 89: 635–641Google Scholar
  37. Cannon JD, Zile MR, Crawford FA, Carabello BA (1992) Aortic valve resistance as an adjunct to the Gorlin formula in assessing the severity of aortic stenosis in symptomatic patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 20: 1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cannon SR, Richards KL, Crawford M (1985) Hydraulic estimation of stenotic orifice area: A correction of the Gorlin formula. Circulation 71: 1170–1178Google Scholar
  39. Carabello B. A (1991) Timing of surgery in mitral and aortic steno-sis. Cardiol Clin 9: 229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Carabello BA (1997) Timing of valve replacement in aortic stenosis. Circulation 95: 2241–2243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Carabello BA, Crawford FA (1997) Valvular heart disease. N Engl J Med 337: 32–41Google Scholar
  42. Carabello BA, Stewart WJ, Crawford FA jr (1998) Aortic valve disease. In: Topol EJ (ed) Textbook of cardiovascular medicine, ist edn. Lipincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 533–556Google Scholar
  43. Carabello BA, Usher BW, Hendrix GH et al. (1987) Predictors of outcome in patients with aortic regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction: A change in the measuring stick. J Am Coll Cardiol to: 991Google Scholar
  44. Carpentier A, Deloche A, Dauptain (1971) J A new reconstructive operation for correction of mitral and tricuspid insufficiency. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 61: 1Google Scholar
  45. Carroll JD, Gaasch WH, Naimi S, Levine HJ (1982) Regression of myocardial hypertrophy: Electrocardiographic-echocardiographic correlations after aortic valve replacement in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation. Circulation 65: 980–987Google Scholar
  46. Castello R, Pearson AC, Lenzen P, Labovitz AJ (1991) Effect of mitral regurgitation on pulmonary venous velocities derived from transesophageal echocardiography color-guided pulsed Doppler imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 17: 1499–506Google Scholar
  47. Cheitlin MD, Bonow RO, Parmley WW et al. (1985) Task force II: Acquired valvular heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 6: 1209–1214Google Scholar
  48. Cheitlin MD, MacGregor JS (1998) Acquired tricuspid and pulmonary valve disease. In: Topol EJ (ed) Textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 557–578Google Scholar
  49. Chen CR, Cheng TO, Huang T et al. (1996) Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonic stenosis in adolescents and adults. N Engl J Med 335: 21–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Chen Q, Nosir YF, Vletter WB, Kint PP, Salustri A, Roelandt JR (1997) Accurate assessment of mitral valve area in patients with mitral stenosis by three-dimensional echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1o: 2, 133–140Google Scholar
  51. Chizner MA, Pearle DL, deLeon AC jr (1980) The natural history of aortic stenosis in adults. Am Heart J 99: 419Google Scholar
  52. Choong CY et al. (1989) Prevalence of valvular regurgitation by Doppler echocardiography in patients with structurally normal hearts by two-dimensional echocardiography. Am Heart J 117: 636–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Chun PKC, Dunn BE (1982) Clinical clue of severe aortic stenosis. Simultaneous palpation of the carotid and apical impulses. Arch Intern Med 142: 2284Google Scholar
  54. Clemens JD et al. (1982) A controlled evaluation of the risk of bacterial endocarditis in persons with mitral valve prolapse. N Engl J Med 307: 776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cobanoglu A, Starr A (1986) Tricuspid valve surgery: indications, methods, and results. In: Frankl BW, Best WN, eds. Cardiovascular Clinics. Valvular Heart Disease. Comprehensive Evaluation and Management. Davis, Philadelphia, pp 375–387Google Scholar
  56. Cohn LH (1984) The long-term results of aortic valve replacement. Chest 85: 387Google Scholar
  57. Cohn LH (1994) Tricuspid regurgitation secondary to mitral valve disease: When and how to repair. J Card Surg 9: 237–241Google Scholar
  58. Cohn LH,Allred EN, Cohn LA (1985) Long term results on open mitral valve reconstruction for mitral stenosis. Am J Cardiol 55: 731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Cohn LH, Couper GS, Kinchla NM, Collins JJ jr (1990) Decreased operative risk of surgical treatment of mitral regurgitation with or without coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 16: 1575–1578Google Scholar
  60. Cohn LH, DiSesa VJ, Couper GS et al. (1989) Mitral valve repair for myxomatous degeneration and prolapse of the mitral valve. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 98: 987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Cope GD, Kisslo JA, Johnson ML, Behan VS (1975) A reassessment of the echocardiogram in mitral stenosis. Circulation 52: 664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Corin WJ, Monrad ES, Murakami T, Nonogi H, Hess OM, Krayenbühl HP (1987) The relationship of afterload to ejection performance in chronic mitral regurgitation. Circulation 76: 59–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Cremieux AC, Witchitz S, Malergue MC et al. (1985) Clinical and echocardiographic observations in pulmonary valve endocarditis. Am J Cardiol 56: 610–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Criley JM, Lewis KB, Humphries JO, Ross RS (1966) Prolapse of the mitral valve: Clinical and cine-angiographic findings. Br Heart J 28: 488–496Google Scholar
  65. Currie PJ, Hagler DJ, Seward JB, Reeder GS, Fyfe DA, Bove AA, Tajik AJ (1986) Instantaneous pressure gradient: A simultaneous Doppler and dual catheter correlative study. J Am Coll Cardiol 7: 800Google Scholar
  66. Curtius JM, Opgenorth R, Loogen F (1987) Klinische Bedeutung der doppler-echokardiographischen Bestimmung des Schwere-grades von Aortenklappenstenosen. Z Kardiol 76: 269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Curtius JM, Thyssen M, Breuer HW, Loogen F (1985) Doppler versus contrast echocardiography for diagnosis of tricuspid regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 56: 333–336Google Scholar
  68. Dale J, Levang 0, Enge I (1980) Long-term results after aortic valve replacement with four different prostheses. Am Heart J 99: 155–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Danchin N, Briancon S, Mathieu P et al. (1989) Mitral valve prolap- se as a risk factor for infective endocarditis. Lancet I: 743Google Scholar
  70. Daniel WG, Mügge A, Grote J , Hausmann D, Nikutta P, Laas J, Lichtlen PR, Martin RP (1993) Comparison of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography for detection of abnormalities of prosthetic and bioprosthetic valves in the mitral and aortic positions. Am J Cardiol 71: 210–215Google Scholar
  71. Davies AO, Mares A, Pool JL, Taylor AA (1987) Mitral valve prolapse with symptoms of beta-adrenergic hypersensitivity. Beta2adrenergic receptor supercoupling with desensitization on isoproterenol exposure. Am J Med 82: 193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. De Maria AN, King JF, Bogren JG et al. (1974) The variable spectrum of echocardiographic manifestations of the mitral valve prolapse syndrome. Circulation 5o: 33–41Google Scholar
  73. De Mol BA, Kallewaard M, McLellan RB, van Herwerden LA, Defauw JJ, van der Graaf Y (1994) Single-leg strut fractures in ex-planted Björk-Shiley valves. Lancet 343: 9-12 Google Scholar
  74. De Simone R, Lange R, Tanzeem A, Gams E, Hagl S (1993) Adjustable tricuspid valve annuloplasty assisted by intraoperative transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 71: 926-931 Google Scholar
  75. DeFilippi CR, Willet DL, Brickner E et al. (1995) Usefulness of dobutamine echocardiography in distinguishing severe from nonsevere valvular aortic stenosis in patients with depressed left ventricular function and low transvalvular gradients. Am J Cardiol 75: 191–194Google Scholar
  76. DeMaria AN, Bommer W, Joye J et al. (1980) Value and limitations of cross-sectional echocardiography of the aortic valve in the diagnosis and quantification of valvular aortic stenosis. Circulation 62: 304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Devereux RB et al. (1986) Complications of mitral valve prolapse. Disproportionate occurrence in men and older patients. Am J Med 81: 751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Dillon JC, Haine CL, Chang S et al. (1971) Use of echocardiography in patients with prolapsed mitral valve. Circulation 43: 503–507Google Scholar
  79. Donaldson RM, Florio R, Rickards AF et al. (1982) Irreversible morphological changes contributing to depressed cardiac function after surgery for chronic aortic regurgitation. Br Heart J 48: 589–597Google Scholar
  80. Doty DB (1996) Aortic valve replacement with homograft and autograft. Sem Thor Cardiovasc Surg 8: 249–258Google Scholar
  81. Downes TR, Nomeir A-M, Hackshaw BT et al. (1989) Diastolic mitral regurgitation in acute but not chronic aortic regurgitation: Implications regarding the mechanism of mitral closure. Am Heart J 117: 1106–1112Google Scholar
  82. Drake CE, Hodroten JE, Sridharan MR et al. (1985) Evaluation of the association of mitral valve prolapse in patientes with WolffParkinson-White type ECG and its relationship to the ventricular activation pattern. Am Heart J 109 (I): 83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Driscoll DJ, Wolfe RR, Gersony WM et al. (1993) Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise of patients with aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, and ventricular septal defect. Circulation 87: I 102–113Google Scholar
  84. Elayda MA, Hall RJ, Reul RM et al. (1993) Aortic valve replacement in patients 8o years or older. Circulation 88 (part 2 ): 11–16Google Scholar
  85. Emi S, Fukuda N, Oki T et al. (1993) Genesis of the Austin-Flint murmur: relation to mitral inflow and aortic regurgitant flow dynamics. J Am Coll Cardiol 21: 1399–1405Google Scholar
  86. Enriquez-Sarano M, Tajik AJ, Schaff HV et al. (1994) Echocardiographic prediction of left ventricular function after correction of mitral regurgitation: results and clinical implications. J Am Coll Cardiol 24: 1536-1543Google Scholar
  87. Ensing G, Seward J, Darragh R, Caldwell R (1994) Feasibility of generating hemodynamic pressure curves from noninvasive Doppler echocardiographic signals. J Am Coll Cardiol 23: 434-442Google Scholar
  88. Farid L, Dayem MK, Guindy R, Shabetai R, Dittrich HC (1992) The importance of tricuspid valve structure and function in the surgical treatment of rheumatic mitral and aortic disease. Eur Heart J 13: 366–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Fawzy ME, Mercer EN, Dunn B, al AM, Andaya W (1989) Doppler echocardiography in the evaluation of tricuspid stenosis. Eur Heart J 10: 985–990Google Scholar
  90. Fehske W, Omran H, Manz M, Köhler J, Hagendorff A, Luderitz B (1994) Color-coded Doppler imaging of the vena contracta as a basis for quantification of pure mitral regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 73: 268–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Fernandez J, Laub GW, Adkins MS et al. (1994) Early and late-phase events after valve replacement with the St. Jude Medical prosthesis in 1200 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 107: 394-407Google Scholar
  92. Flachskampf FA, Frieske R, Engelhard B et al. (1998) Comparison of transesophageal Doppler methods with angiography for evaluation of the severity of mitral regurgitation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr u: 882–892Google Scholar
  93. Flachskampf FA, Weyman AE, Gillam L et al. (199o) Aortic regurgitation shortens Doppler pressure half-time in mitral stenosis: clinical evidence, in vitro simulation and theoretic analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 16: 2, 396–404Google Scholar
  94. Frank S, Johnson A, Ross J JR (1973) Natural history of valvular aortic stenosis. B Heart J 35: 41Google Scholar
  95. Fujita N, Chazouilleres AF, Hartiala JJ et al. (1994) Quantification of mitral regurgitation by velocity-encoded cine nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 23: 951-958Google Scholar
  96. Gaffney FA, Bastian BC, Lane LB et al. (1983) Abnormal cardiovascular regulation in the mitral valve prolapse syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 52: 316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Geibel A, Kasper W, Reifart N, Faber T, Just H (1991) Clinical and Doppler echocardiographic follow-up after percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty for aortic valve stenosis. Am J Cardiol 67: 616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Gersony WM, Hayes CJ, Driscoll DJ et al. (1993) Second natural history study of congenital heart defects. Quality of life of patients with aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, or ventricular septal defect. Circulation 87: 1 52–65Google Scholar
  99. Giesler M, Grossmann G, Schmidt A et al. (1994) Color Doppler echocardiographic determinaation of mitral regurgitant flow from the proximal velocity profile of the flow convergence region. Am J Cardiol 71: 217–224Google Scholar
  100. Gohlke-Bärwolf C, Acar J, Oakley C et al. (1995) Empfehlungen zur Thromboembolieprophylaxe bei Herzklappenerkrankungen der Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease, European Society of Cardiology. Z Kardiol 84: 1018–1032Google Scholar
  101. Goldenberg IF, Pedersen W, Olson J et al. (1989) Percutaneous double balloon valvuloplasty for severe tricuspid stenosis. Am Heart J 118: 417–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Goldman ME, Guarino T, Fuster V, Mindich B (1987) The necessity for tricuspid valve repair can be determined intraoperatively by two-dimensional echocardiography. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 94: 542–550Google Scholar
  103. Gorlin R, Gorlin SG (1951) Hydraulic formula for calculation of the area of the stenotic mitral valve, other cardiac valves, and central circulatory shunts. Am Heart J 41: 1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Greves J, Rahimtoola SH, McAnulty JH et al. (1981) Preoperative criteria predictive of late survival following valve replacement for severe aortic regurgitation. Am Heart J loi: 300–308Google Scholar
  105. Grossman W (1991) Cardiac catheterization and angiography, 4th edn. Lea and Felbiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  106. Grunkemeier GL, Rahimtoola SH (199o) Artificial heart valves. Annu Rev Med 4i: 251–263Google Scholar
  107. Guyer DE, Gillam LD, Foale RA et al. (1984) Comparison of the echocardiographic and hemodynamic diagnosis of rheumatic tricuspid stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 3: 1135–1144Google Scholar
  108. Haerten K, Dohn V, Dohn G (1980) Natürlicher Verlauf operationswürdiger Mitral-and Mehrfachklappenvitien bei konservativer Therapie. Z Kardiol 69: 611–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hakki AH, Kimbiris D, Iskandrian AS, Segal BL, Mintz GS, Bemis CE (1980) Angina pectoris and coronary artery disease in patients with severe aortic valvular disease. Am Heart J: 100: 441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hall R (1989) Aortic stenosis. In: Julian PG et al. Diseases of the heart. Baillière Tindall, Chapter 26, pp 707–730Google Scholar
  111. Hammermeister KE, Sethi G, Henderson WG et al., for the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study on Valvular Heart Disease (1993) A comparison of outcomes in men is years after heart-valve replacement with a mechanical valve or bioprosthesis. N Engl J Med 328: 1289–1296Google Scholar
  112. Hatle L, Angelsen B, Tromsdal A (1979) Non-invasive assessment of atrioventricular pressure half-time by Doppler ultrasound. Circulation 6o: 1096–1104Google Scholar
  113. Hatle L, Brubakk A, Tromsdal A, Angelsen B (1978) Noninvasive assessment of pressure drop in mitral stenosis by Doppler ultrasound. Br Heart J 4o: 131–14oGoogle Scholar
  114. Hauck AJ, Freeman DP, Ackermann DM, Danielson GK, Edwards WD (1988) Surgical pathology of the tricuspid valve: a study of 363 cases spanning 25 years. Mayo Clin Proc 63: 851–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hausen B, Albes JM, Rohde R, Demertzis S, Mugge A, Schafers HJ (1995) Tricuspid valve regurgitation attributable to endomyocardial biopsies and rejection in heart transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg 59: 1134–114oPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hayes CJ, Gersony WM, Driscoll DJ et al. (1993) Second natural history study of congenital heart defects. Results of treatment of patients with pulmonary valvar stenosis. Circulation 87: I 28–37Google Scholar
  117. Helmcke F, Nanda NC, Hsiung MC, Soto B, Adey CK, Goyal RG, Gatewood RP (1987) Color Doppler assessment of mitral regurgitation with orthogonal planes. Circulation 75: 175–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Henry WL (1975) Measurements of mitral orifice area in patients with mitral valve disease by real-time two dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 51: 827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Henry WL, Bonow RO, Borer JS et al. (1980) Observations on the optimum time for operative intervention for aortic regurgitation: I. Evaluation of the results of aortic valve replacement in symptomatic patients. Circulation; 61: 471Google Scholar
  120. Henry WL, Kastl DJ (1977) Echocardiographic evaluation of patients with mitral stenosis. Am J Med 62: 813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Hess 0M, Turina J, l’urina M, Krayenbühl P (1986) There are no reliable preoperative markers of postoperative persistent left ventricular dysfunction. Z Kardiol 75 (Suppl 2): 95–99Google Scholar
  122. Hickey AJ, MacMahon SW, Wilcken DEL (1985) Mitral valve prolapse and bacterial endocarditis: When is antibiotic prophylaxis necessary? Am Heart J 109: 431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Hickey MS, Smith LR, Muhlbaier LH et al. (1988) Current prognosis of ischemic mitral regurgitation: implications for future mangement. Circulation78 (Suppl I): 51–59Google Scholar
  124. Hoffmann R, Flachskampf FA, Hanrath P (1993) Planimetry of orifice area in aortic stenosis using multiplane transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 22: 529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Hofmann T, Kasper W, Meinertz T, Spillner G, Schlosser V, Just H (1987) Determination of aortic valve orifice area in aortic valve stenosis by two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 59: 33oGoogle Scholar
  126. Holper K, Haehnel JC, Augustin N, Sebening F (1993) Surgery for tricuspid insufficiency: long-term follow-up after De Vega annuloplasty. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 41: 1–8Google Scholar
  127. Hood WP, Rackley CE, Rolett EL (1968) Wall stress in the normal and hypertrophied human left ventricle. Am J Cardiol 22: 550–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Hoppe U, Sechtem U, Erdmann E (1994) Operationsindikation bei asymptomatischer hochgradiger Aortenklappenstenose. Dtsch med Wschr 119: 1630 `Google Scholar
  129. Horstkotte D, Loogen F, Bircks W (1987) Klinik and natürlicher Verlauf chronischer Herzklappenerkrankungen. In: Horstkotte D, Loogen F, Bircks W (Hrsg) Erworbene Herzklappenfehler. Urban and Schwarzenberg, München, S 112–117Google Scholar
  130. Horstkotte D, Schulte HD, Bircks W, Strauer BE (1994) Lower intensity anticoagulation therapy results in lower complication rates with the St. Jude Medical prosthesis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 107: 1136–1145Google Scholar
  131. Horstkotte et al. (1991) Pathomorphological aspects, etiology and natural history of aquired mitral valve stenosis. Eur Heart J 12 (Suppl B): 55Google Scholar
  132. Huddleston CB, Rosenbloom M, Goldstein JA, Pasque MK (1994) Biopsy-induced tricuspid regurgitation after cardiac transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg 57: 832–836Google Scholar
  133. Inoue K, Feldman T (1993)Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy using the Inoue balloon catheter. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 28: 119–125Google Scholar
  134. Inoue K, Owaki T, Nakamura T, Kitamura F, Miyamoto N (1984) Clinical application of transvenous mitral commissurotomy by a new balloon catheter. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 87: 394–402Google Scholar
  135. Israel DH, Sharma SK, Fuster V (1994) Antithrombotic therapy in prosthetic heart valve replacement. Am Heart J 127: 400–411Google Scholar
  136. Jegaden O, Perinetti M, Barthelet M et al. (1992) Long-term results of porcine bioprostheses in the tricuspid position. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 6: 256–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Jeresaty RM (1976) Sudden death in the mitral valve prolapse syndrome. Am J Cardiol 37: 317–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Johnson GL, Vine DL, Cottrill CM, Noonan JA (1981) Echocardiographic mitral valve deformity in the mucopolysaccharidoses. Pediatrics 67: 401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Johnson LI, Sciacca RR, Ellis K (1978) Reduced left ventricular myocardial blood flow per unit mass in aortic stenosis. Circulation 57: 582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Josephson ME, Horowitz LN, Kastor JA (1977) Paroxysmal supra-ventricular tachycardia in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Circulation 57: 111Google Scholar
  141. Judge TP, Kennedy JW, Bennett LJ (1971) Quantitative hemodynamic effects of heart rate in aortic regurgitation. Circulation 44: 355–367Google Scholar
  142. Judgutt BJ, Fraser SJ, Lee JK (1977) Long-term results after tricuspid valve replacement - results with seven different prostheses. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 74: 20Google Scholar
  143. Kalmar P, Irrgang E (1998) Cardiac surgery in Germany during 1997. A report by the German society for thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 46: 307–310Google Scholar
  144. Kaminaga T, Naito H, Takamiya M, Nishimura T (1994) Quantitative evaluation of mitral regurgitation with ultrafast CT. J Comp Ass Tomogr 18/2: 239–242Google Scholar
  145. Karp RB, Cyrus R), Blackstone EH, Kirklin JW, Kouchoukos NT, Pacifico Al) (1981) The Björk–Shiley valve. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 81: 602–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kaul S, Spotnitz WD, Glasheen WP, Touchstone DA (1991) Mechanism of ischemic mitral regurgitation. An experimental evaluation. Circulation 84: 2167–2180Google Scholar
  147. Keefe JF, Wolk MJ, Levine HJ (1970) Isolated tricuspid valvular stenosis. Am J Cardiol 25: 252Google Scholar
  148. Kerber RE, Isaeff PM, Hancock EW (1971) Echocardiographic patterns in patients with the syndrome of systolic click and late systolic murmur. N Engl J Med 284: 691–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Kirklin JW, Kouchoukos NT (1981) Aortic valve replacement wit- hout myocardial revascularization. Circulation 63: 252–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Kisslo J, von Ramm OT, Thurstone FL (1976) Cardiac imaging using a phased-array ultrasound system. II. Clinical technique and application. Circulation 53: 262–267Google Scholar
  151. Kitchin A, Turner R (1964). Diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid stenosis. Br Heart J 26: 354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kleikamp G, Schnepper U, Kortke H, Breymann T, Korfer R (1992) Tricuspid valve regurgitation following blunt thoracic trauma. Chest 102: 1294–1296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Klepzig H, Stanke R Kunkel B et al. (1982) Kombinierte First-PassÄquilibrium-Radionuklidventrikulographie zur nichtinvasiven Beurteilung der Schwere einer Aorteninsuffizienz. Z Kardiol 71: 661–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Klues HG, Maron BJ, Dollar AL, Roberts WC. Diversity of structural mitral valve alterations in hypertrophie cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 1992 May; 85 (5): 1651–1660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kratz J (1991). Evaluation and management of tricuspid valve disease. Cardiol Clin 9: 397–407Google Scholar
  156. Kratz J, Crawford FA Jr., Sade RM et al. (1993) St. Jude prothesis for aortic and mitral valve replacement: a ten-year experience Ann Thorac Surg 56: 462–468Google Scholar
  157. Kumar A, Sinha M, Sinha DNP (1982) Chronic rheumatic heart disease. Angiology 33: 141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Ladgefoged C, Rohr N (1984) Amyloid deposits in aortic and mitral valves. Virchows Arch (A) 404: 301Google Scholar
  159. Lambertz H, Minale C, Flachskampf FA et al. (1989) Long-term follow-up after Carpentier tricuspid valvuloplasty. Am Heart J 117: 615–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Landzberg JS, Pflugfelder PW, Cassidy MM et al. (1992) Etiology of the Austin-Flint murmur. J Am Coll Cardiol 2o: 408–413Google Scholar
  161. Laniado S, Yellin EL, Yoran C et al. (1982) Physiologic mechanism in aortic insufficiency. I: The effect of changing heart rate on flow dynamics. II: Determinants of the Austin Flint murmur. Circulation 66: 226–235Google Scholar
  162. Lau KW, Hung JS (1993) Controversies in percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty: timing, patient selection and technique. J Heart Valve Dis 2: 321–325Google Scholar
  163. Leor J, Feinberg MS, Vered Z et al. (1993) Effect of thrombolytic therapy on the evolution of significant mitral regurgitation in patients with a first inferior myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 21: 1661–1666Google Scholar
  164. Leung DY, Griffin BP, Stewart WJ et al. (1996) Left ventricular function after valve repair for chronic mitral regurgitation: Predictive value of preoperative assessment of contractile reserve by exercise echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 28: 1198–205Google Scholar
  165. Levine RA (1994) Right ventricular inflow tract. In: Weyman AE (ed) Principles and practice of echocardiography. Lea and Felbiger, Philadelphia, pp 824–862Google Scholar
  166. Levine RA, Triulzi MO, Harrigan P, Weyman AE (1987) The relationship of mitral annular shape to the diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Circulation 75: 756–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Lindblom D, Lindblom U, Qvist J, Lundstrom J (1990) Long-term relative survival rates after heart valve replacement. J Am Coll Cardiol 15: 566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Lisa CP, Tavel ME (1972) Tricuspid stenosis: Graphic features which help in its diagnosis. Chest 61: 291Google Scholar
  169. Loogen F, Schaub W (1959) Zur Klinik and Hämodynamik der Trikuspidalstenose. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 84: 409Google Scholar
  170. Lucas RVJ, Edwards JE (1982) The floppy mitral valve. Curr Proth Cardiol 7: 1Google Scholar
  171. Lytle BW, Cosgrove DM, Loop FD et al. (1983) Replacement of aortic valve combined with myocardial revascularization: Determinants of early and late risk for Soo patients,1967–1981. Circu-lation 68: 1149–1162Google Scholar
  172. Macmanus Q, Grunkemeier GL, Lambert LE et al. (1980) Year of operation as a risk factor in the late results of valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 8o: 834–841Google Scholar
  173. Magovern JA, Pennock JL, Campbell DB, Pae WE, Bartholomew M, Pierce WS, Waldhausen JA (1987) Aortic valve replacement and combined aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting: Predicting high risk groups. J Am Coll Cardiol 9: 38Google Scholar
  174. Markiewicz W, Stoner J, London E et al. (1976) Mitral valve prolapse in one hundred presumably healthy young females. Circulation 53: 464–473Google Scholar
  175. Martin RP (1979) Reliability and reproducibility of 2D echocardiographic measurement of the stenotic mitral valve orifice area. J Am Coll Cardiol 43: 560Google Scholar
  176. Marzo KP, Herrmann HC, Mancini DM (1993) Effect of balloon mitral valvuloplasty on exercise capacity, ventilation and skeletal muscle oxygenation. J Am Coll Cardiol 21: 856–865Google Scholar
  177. Massu B, Botviniek EH, Shames D et al. (1978) Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Circulation 57: 19–26Google Scholar
  178. Masuyama T, Kodama K, Kitabatake A et al. (1986) Noninvasive evaluation of aortic regurgitation by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography. Circulation 73: 460–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. McGrath LB, Chen C, Bailey BM, Fernandez J, Laub GW, Adkins MS (1992) Early and late phase events following bioprosthetic tricuspid valve replacement. J Card Surg 7: 245–253Google Scholar
  180. McKay RG (1991) The Mansfield Scientific Aortic Valvuloplasty Registry: Overview of acute hemodynamic results and procedural complications. J Am Coll Cardiol 57: 485Google Scholar
  181. McMillan IKR (1955) Aortic stenosis: A postmortem cinephotographic study of valve action. Br Heart J 17:56Google Scholar
  182. Mele D, Vandervoort P, Palacios I et al. (1995) Proximal jet size by Doppler color flow mapping predicts severity of mitral regurgitation. Clinical studies. Circulation 91: 746-754Google Scholar
  183. Meyer T, Sareli P, Pocock WA et al. (5987) Echocardiographic and hemodynamic correlates of diastolic closure of mitral valve and diastolic opening of aortic valve in severe aortic regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 59: 1144–5448Google Scholar
  184. Mills P et al. (1977) Long-term prognosis of mitral-valve prolapse. N Engl J Med 297: 13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Morganroth J, Mardelli TJ, Naito M et al. (1981) Apical cross-sectional echocardiography: standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic mitral valve prolapse syndrome. Chest 79: 23–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Morris JJ, Schaff HV, Mullany CJ et al. (1993) Determinants of survival and recovery of left ventricular function after aortic valve replacement. Ann Thorac Surg 56: 22Google Scholar
  187. Mulieri LA, Leavitt BJ, Martinn BJ, Haeberle JR, Alpert NR (1993) Myocardial force-frequency defect in mitral regurgitation heart failure is reversed by forskolin. Circulation 88: 2700–2704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Munoz S, Gallardo J, Diaz-Gorrin JR, Medina O (1975). Influence of surgery on the natural history rheumatic mitral and aortic valve disease. Am J Cardiol 35: 234–242Google Scholar
  189. Murakami T, Hess OM, Gage JE, Grimm J, Krayenbuehl HP (1986) Diastolic filling dynamics in patients with aortic stenosis. Circulation 73: 1162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Nakamura T, Hultgren HN, Shettigar UR, Fowles RE (1984) Noninvasive evaluation of the severity of aortic stenosis in adult patients. Am Heart J 107: 959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. NHLBI Balloon Valvuloplasty Registry Participants (1991) Percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty: acute and 3o-day follow-up results in 674 patients from the NHLBI Balloon Valvuloplasty Registry. Circulation 84: 2383Google Scholar
  192. Nichol PM, Gilbert GW, Kisslo JA (1977) 2D echocardiographic assessment of mitral stenosis. Circulation 55: 120Google Scholar
  193. Nishimura RA et al. (1985) Echocardiographically documented mitral valve prolapse: long term follow up of 232 patients. N Engl J Med 313: 1305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Olson LJ, Subramanian R, Edwards WD (1984) Surgical pathology of pure aortic insufficiency: A study of 225 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 59: 835–841Google Scholar
  195. Ormiston JA, Shah PM, Tei C, Wong M (1981) Size and motion of the mitral valve annulus in man. I. A two-dimensional echocardiographic method and findings in normal subjects. Circulati-Google Scholar
  196. on 64:113–120Google Scholar
  197. Ormiston JA, Shah PM, Tei C, Wong M (1982) Size and motion of the mitral valve annulus in man. II. Abnormalities in mitral valve prolapse. Circulation 65: 713–719Google Scholar
  198. Orszulak TA, Schaff HV, DeSmet JM et al. (1993) Late results of valve replacement with the Björk-Shiley valve (1973 to 1982). J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 105: 302–212Google Scholar
  199. Otto CM, Burwash IG, Legget ME et al. (1997) Prospective study of asymptomatic valvular aortic stenosis. Circulation 95: 2262–2270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Otto CM, Mickel MC, Kennedy JW et al. (1994) Three-Year outco- me after balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Circulation 89: 642Google Scholar
  201. Palacios IF, Block PC, Wilkins GT,Weyman AE (1989) Follow up of patients undergoing percutaneous mitral balloon valvulotomy: analysis of factors determining restenosis. Circulation 79: 573–579Google Scholar
  202. Palacios IF, Tuzcu ME, Weyman AE et al. (1995) Clinical follow-up of patients undergoing percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy. Circulation 91: 671Google Scholar
  203. Pasaoglu I, Demiricin M, Dogan R et al. (1990) De Vegas tricuspid annuloplasty: analysis of 195 patients. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 38: 365–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Pearlman AS (1991) Role of echocardiography in the diagnosis and evaluation of severity of mitral and tricuspid stenosis. Circulation 84 (3 Suppl): 1193–1197Google Scholar
  205. Pearlman AS, Otto CM (1987) The use of Doppler techniques for quantitative evaluation of valvular regurgitation. Eur Heart J 8 (Suppl C): 35–43Google Scholar
  206. Pellegrini A, Colombo T, Donatelli F et al. (1992) Evaluation and treatment of secondary tricuspid insufficiency. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 6: 288–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Pellikka PA, Tajik AJ, Khandheria BK et al. (1993) Carcinoid heart disease. Clinical and echocardiographic spectrum in 74 patients. Circulation 87: 1188–1196Google Scholar
  208. Perez JE, Ludbrook PA,Ahumada GG (1985). Usefulness of Doppler echocardiography in detecting tricuspid valve stenosis. Am J Cardiol 55: 601–603Google Scholar
  209. Perr GJ et al. (1987) Evaluation of aortic insufficiency by Doppler color flow mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol 9: 952Google Scholar
  210. Popp RL, Brown OR, Silverman JF et al. (1974) Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mitral valve prolapse syndrome. Circulation 49: 428–433Google Scholar
  211. Prabhakar G, Kumar N, Gometza B, Al Halees Z, Duran CM (1993) Surgery for organic rheumatic disease of the tricuspid valve. J Heart Valve Dis 2: 561–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Procacci PM, Savran SV, Schreiter SL, Bryson AL (1976) Prevalence of clinical mitral valve prolapse in 1,169 young women. N Engl J Med 294: 1086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Puddu PE, Pasternac A, Tubau JF et al. (1983) QT interval prolongation and increased plasma catecholamine levels in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Am Heart J los: 422Google Scholar
  214. Rabago G, Fraile J, Martinell J,Artiz V (1986) Technique and results of tricuspid annuloplasty. J Card Surg 1: 247–253Google Scholar
  215. Rahimtoola SH (1986) Perspective on valvular heart disease: An update. J Am Coll Cardiol 14: 1Google Scholar
  216. Ramsdale DR, Bennett DH, Bray CL (1984) Angina, coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease in patients with valvular heart disease. A prospective study. Eur Heart J 5: 716–726Google Scholar
  217. Rapaport E (1975) Natural history of aortic and mitral valve disease. Am J Cardiol 35: 221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Rapaport E, Rackley CE, Cohn LH (1994) Aortic valve disease. In: Schlant RC, Alexander RW (eds) Hursts The Heart. McGraw-Hill, New York, chap 79, pp 1457–1481Google Scholar
  219. Reichek N (1994) Mitral regurgitation: Is this the gold standard? J Am Coll Cardiol 23: 959-960Google Scholar
  220. Reichek N, Shelburne JD, Perloff JR (1971) Clinical aspects of rheumatic valvular disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 15: 491Google Scholar
  221. Reul H, Son JAM van, Steinseifer U et al. (1993) In vitro comparison of bileaflet aortic heart valve prostheses. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 106: 412–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Reyes VP, Raju BS, Wynne J et al. (1994) Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty compared with open surgical commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. N Engl J Med 331: 961–967Google Scholar
  223. Ribeiro PA, Al Zaibag M, Al Kasab S et al. (1988) Provocation and amplification of the transvalvular pressure gradient in rheumatic tricuspid stenosis. Am J Cardiol 61: 1307–1311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Ribeiro PA, Al Zaibag M, Idris MT (1990) Percutaneous double balloon tricuspid valvotomy for severe tricuspid stenosis: 3-year follow-up study. Eur Heart J 11: 1109–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Ribeiro PA, Al Zaibag M, Sawyer W (1989) A prospective study comparing the haemodynamic with the cross-sectional echo-cardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic tricuspid stenosis. Eur Heart J 10: 120–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Richards KL, Cannon SR, Miller JF, Crawford MH (1986) Calculation of aortic valve area by Doppler echocardiography: A direct application of the continuity equation. Circulation 73: 964Google Scholar
  227. Ritchie JL, Hammermaster KE, Kennedy JW (1976) Refractory ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation in a patient with prolapsing mitral leaflet syndrome-successful control with over-driving pacing. Am J Cardiol 37: 314–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Rivera JM, Vandervoort PM, Morris E, Weyman AE, Thomas JD (1994) Visual assessment of valvular regurgitation: comparison with quantitative Doppler measurements. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 7: 480–487Google Scholar
  229. Rivera R, Duran E, Ajuria M (1985) Carpentiers flexible ring versus De Vegas annuloplasty. A prospective randomized study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 89: 196–203Google Scholar
  230. Roberts WC (1970) Anatomically isolated aortic disease. Am J Cardiol 49: 151Google Scholar
  231. Roberts WC (1970) The congenitally bicuspid aortic valve: A study of 85 autopsy cases. Am J Cardiol 26: 72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Roberts WC (1973) Valvular, subvalvular and supravalvular aortic stenosis. Morphologic features. Cardiovasc Clin 5: 97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Roberts WC (1983) Morphologic features of the normal and abnormal mitral valve. Am J Cardiol 51: 1005–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Roberts WC, Day PJ (1985) Electrocardiographic observations in clinically isolated, pure and chronic, severe aortic regurgitation: Analysis of 3o necropsy patients aged 19 to 65 years. Am J Cardiol 55: 432–438Google Scholar
  235. Ronan JA, Perloff JK, Harrey WP (1965) Systolic clicks and late systolic murmur. Intracardiac phonocardiographic evidence of their mitral valve origin. Am Heart J 70: 319–325Google Scholar
  236. Ross D, Jackson M, Davies J (1992) The pulmonary autograft–a permanent aortic valve. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 6: 113–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Ross J jr, Brandenburg RO, Dinsmore RE, Friesinger GC II, Hultgren HH, Pepine CJ et al. (1987) Guidelines for coronary angiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Procedures ( Subcommittee on Coronary Angiography ). J Am Coll Cardiol lo: 935Google Scholar
  238. Ross J jr, Braunwald E (1968) Aortic stenosis. Circulation (Suppl V ) 38: 61Google Scholar
  239. Rutledge R, Kim J, Applebaum RE (1985) Actuarial analysis of the risk of prosthetic valve endocarditis in 1,598 patients with mechanical and bioprosthetic valves. Arch Surg 120: 469–472Google Scholar
  240. Sabbah HN, Khaja F, Anbe DT, Stein PD (1977) The aortic closure sound in pure aortic insufficiency. Circulation 56: 859–863Google Scholar
  241. Sabbah HN, Rosman H, Kono T, Alam M, Khaja F, Goldstein S (1993) On the mechanism of functional mitral regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 72: 1074–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. San Roman JA, Vilacosta I, Zamorano JL et al. (1993) Transesophageal echocardiography in right-sided endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 21: 1226–1230Google Scholar
  243. Savage DD, Devereux RB, Garrison RJ et al. (1983) Mitral valve prolapse in the general population. II: Clinical features: The Framingham Study. Am Heart J 106: 577Google Scholar
  244. Savage DI), Garrison RJ, Devereux RB et al. (1983) Mitral valve prolapse in the general population. 1: Epidemiologic features: The Framingham Study. Am Heart J 106: 571Google Scholar
  245. Schlant RC (1993) Aortic stenosis. Chapter 37 in Chatterjee andGoogle Scholar
  246. Parmley. Cardiology (Vol. 2). Lippincott. Chapter 37, pp. 1–13 Schlant RC, Nutter D (1971) Heart failure in valvular heart disease. Medicine: 5o: 421Google Scholar
  247. Schlüter M, Kremer P, Hanrath P (1984) Transesophageal 2D echo-cardiographic feature of flail mitral leaflet due to ruptured chordae tendineae. Am Heart J 108 /3: 609–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Schnee MA, Bucal AA (1983) Fatal embolism in mitral valve prolapse. Chest 83: 285Google Scholar
  249. Schönduhe FA, Althoff W, Dörge HC et al. (1994) Prophylactic reopreration for strut fractures of the Bjjörk-Shiley convexo-concave heart valve. J Heart Valve Dis 3: 247-253Google Scholar
  250. Schritz JE, Gaffney FA, Beend L et al. (1981) Distinctive anthropometric characteristics of women with mitral valve prolapse. Am J Med 71: 533Google Scholar
  251. Schuler S, Ohlshausen K, Schwartz F et al. (1982) Non-invasive assessment of myocardial contractility in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation and normal left ventricular ejection fraction at rest. Am J Cardiol 50: 45–57Google Scholar
  252. Schwammenthal E, Chen C, Benning F et al. (1994) Dynamics of mitral regurgitant flow and orifice area. Physiologic application of the proximal flow convergence method: Clinical data and experimental testing. Circulation 9o: 307–322Google Scholar
  253. Scognamiglio R, Rahimtoola SH, Fasoli G et al. (1994) Nifedipine in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation and normal left ventricular function. N Engl J Med 331: 689Google Scholar
  254. Sellers RD, Levy MJ, Amplatz K, Lillehei CW (1964) Retrograde cardioangiography in acquired cardiac disease: technic, indications, and interpretation of 700 cases. Am J Cardiol 145: 437–347Google Scholar
  255. Seymour J, Emanuel R, Patterson N (1968) Acquired pulmonary stenosis. Br Heart J 30: 776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Shah PM (1994)Echocardiographic diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 7: 286–293Google Scholar
  257. Shah PM, Gramiak R (1970) Echocardiographic recognition of mi- tral valve prolapse [Abstract]. Circulation 42 (Suppl 3): 45Google Scholar
  258. Shellock FG, Curtis SC (1991) MR imaging and biomedical implants, materials, and devices: An updated review. Radiology 180: 541–550Google Scholar
  259. Siegel RJ, Maurer G, Navatpumin T, Shah PK (1983) Accurate noninvasive assessment of critical aortic valve stenosis in the elderly. J Am Coll Cardiol 1: 639Google Scholar
  260. Silber H, Khan SS, Matloff JM et al. (1993) The St. Jude valve. Thrombolysis as the first line of therapy for cardiac valve thrombosis. Circulation 87: 30–37Google Scholar
  261. Simon R, Oelert H, Borst HG, Lichtlen P (1980) Influence of mitral valve surgery on tricuspid incompetence concomitant with mitral valve disease. Circulation 62: 1152–1157Google Scholar
  262. Simpson IA, de Belder MA, Kenny A, Martin M, Nihoyannopoulos P (1995) How to quantitate valve regurgitation by echo Doppler techniques. British Society of Echocardiography. Br Heart J 73: 1-9Google Scholar
  263. Skjaerpe T, Hatle L (1986). Noninvasive estimation of systolic pressure in the right ventricle in patients with tricuspid regurgitation. Eur Heart J 7: 704–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Slama MS, Drieu LH, Malergue MC et al. (1993) Percutaneous double balloon valvuloplasty for stenosis of porcine bioprostheses in the tricuspid valve position: a report of 2 cases. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 28: 142–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Smith HJ, Neutze JM, Roche AHG et al. (1976) The natural history of rheumatic aortic regurgitation and the indications for surgery. Br Heart J 38: 147–154Google Scholar
  266. Snyder II RW, Glamann B, Lange RA et al. (1994) Predictive value of prominent pulmonary arterial wedge v waves in assessing the presence and severity of mitral regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 73: 568–570Google Scholar
  267. Spagnuolo M, Kloth H, Taranta A et al. (1971) Natural history of rheumatic aortic regurgitation: Criteria predictive of death, congestive heart failure and angina in young patients. Circulation 44: 368–380Google Scholar
  268. Spinale FG, Ishihra K, Zile M et al. (1993) Structural basis for changes in left ventricular function and geometry because of chronic mitral regurgitation and after correction of volume overload. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 106: 1147–1157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Steele P, Weiley H, Rainwater I et al. (1979) Platelet survival time and thrombembolism in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Circulation 60: 43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Stewart WJ, Currie PJ, Salcedo EE et al. (1992). Evaluation of mitral leaflet motion by echocardiography and jet direction by Doppler color flow mapping to determine the mechanism of mitral regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol 20: 1353–1361Google Scholar
  271. Stone PH, Clark RD, Goldschlager N (1984) Determinants of prognosis in patients with aortic regurgitation who undergo aortic valve replacement. J Am Coll Cardiol 3: 1118–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Suzuki Y, Kambara H, Kadota K et al. (1986) Detection and evaluation of tricuspid regurgitation using real-time, two-dimensional, color-coded, Doppler flow imaging system: comparison with contrast two dimensional echocardiography and right ventriculography. Am J Cardiol 57: 811–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. l’einen D, Eriksson P (1985) Quantification of transvalvular pressure differences in aortic stenosis by Doppler ultrasound. Int J Cardiol 7: 121Google Scholar
  274. Teupe C, Burger W, Schrader R, Zeiher AM (1997) Late (five to nine years) follow-up after balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis in adults. Am J Cardiol 8o: 240–242Google Scholar
  275. Thomas JH, Panoussopoulos DG, Jewell WR, Pierce GE (1977) Tricuspid stenosis secondary to metastatic melanoma. Cancer 39: 1732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Thompson R, Mitchell A, Ahmed M, Towers M, Yacoub M (1979) Conduction defects in aortic valve disease. Am Heart J 98: 3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Turina J, Hess OM, Turina M, Krayenbühl HP (1993) Cardiac bio-prostheses in the 199os. Circulation 88: 775–781Google Scholar
  278. Turina J, Turina M. Rothlin M, Krayenbühl HP (1984) Improved late survival in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation by earlier operation. Circulation (Suppl) 7o: 1147–152Google Scholar
  279. Turpie AGG, Gent M, Laupacis A et al. (1993) A comparison of aspirin with placebo in patients treated with warfarin after heart-valve replacement. N Engl J Med 329: 524-529Google Scholar
  280. Tuzcu EM, Block PC, Griffin BP,Weyman AE (1992) Immediate and long term outcome of percutaneous mitral valvotomy in patients 65 years or older. Circulation 85: 963–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. United Kingdom and United States (1965) Joint report on rheumatic heart disease. Circulation 32: 457–471Google Scholar
  282. Van der Graaf Y, de Waard F, van Herwerden LA, Defauw JJ (1992) Risk of strut fracture of Björk-Shiley valves. Lancet 339: 257–2261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Vandenberg BF,Ayres RW,Lindower PD, Burns TI., Kerber RE (1995) Reproducibility and variability of the amount of tricuspid regurgitation with color Doppler echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 76: 198–199Google Scholar
  284. Vared Z, Oren S, Rabinowitz B et al. (1985) Mitral valve prolapse. Quantitative analysis and long-term followup. Isr J Med Sci 21: 644Google Scholar
  285. Vogt PR, Bauer EP, Carrel T, von Segesser L, Turina M (1992) Pericarditis constrictiva after aortic valve replacement simulating tricuspid stenosis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 6: 108–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Wahlers T, Albes J, Pethig K et al. (1996) Valve reconstruction or replacement for long-term biopsy-induced tricuspid regurgitation following heart transplantation. Transpl Int 9: S 247–248Google Scholar
  287. Waller BF (1986) Rheumatic and non-rheumatic conditions producing valvular heart disease. In: Frankl WS, Brest AN (eds) Cardiovascular clinics: Valvular heart disease: Comprehensive evaluation and management. Philadelphia/PA, pp 3–104Google Scholar
  288. Waller BF (1987) Etiology of pure tricuspid regurgitation. Cardiovasc Clin 17: 53–95Google Scholar
  289. Waller BF, Morrow AG, Maron BJ, Del Negro AA, Kent KM, McGrath FJ, Wallace RB, McIntosh CL, Roberts WC (1982) Etiology of clinically isolated, severe, chronic, pure mitral regurgitation: analysis of 97 patients over 3o years of age having mitral valve replacement. Am Heart J 104: 276–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Waller BF, Howard J, Fess S (1994) Pathology of aortic valve steno-sis and pure aortic regurgitation: II: A clinical morphologic assessment. Clin Cardiol: 17: 150Google Scholar
  291. Waller BF, Howard J, Fess S (1995) Pathology of pulmonic valve stenosis and pure regurgitation. Clin Cardiol 18: 45–5oPubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Waller BF, Howard J, Fess S (1995) Pathology of tricuspid valve stenosis and pure tricuspid regurgitation-part 1,11, Ill. Clin Cardiol 18: 97–102; 167–174; 225–230Google Scholar
  293. Wann LS (1978) Determination of mitral valve area by cross sectional echocardiography. Ann Intern Med 88: 337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Wilcken DEL, Hickey AJ (1988) Lifetime risk for patients with mitral valve prolapse of developing severe valve regurgitation requiring surgery. Circulation 78: 10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Williams JCP, Barratt-Boyes BG, Lowe JB (1961) Supravalvular aortic stenosis. Circulation 24: 1311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Wisenbaugh T (1994) Mitral valve disease. Curr Opin Cardiol 9: 146–151Google Scholar
  297. Wisenbaugh T, Essop R, Middlemost S et al. (1993) Pulmonary hypertension is a contraindication to beta-blockade in patients with severe mitral stenosis. Am Heart J 125: 786–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Wisenbaugh T, Essop R, Middlemost S, Skoularogis J, Sareli P (1992) Excessive vasoconstriction in rheumatic mitral stenosis with modestly reduced ejection fraction J Am Coll Cardiol 20/6: 1339-1344Google Scholar
  299. Wisenbaugh T, Skudicky D, Sareli P (1994) Prediction of outcome after valve preplacement for rheumatic mitral regurgitation in the era of chordal preservation. Circulation 89: 191–197Google Scholar
  300. Wisenbaugh T, Spann JF, Carabello BA (1984) Differences in myocardial performance and load between patients with similar amounts of chronic aortic versus chronic mitral regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol 3: 916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Wood P (1954) An appreciation of mitral stenosis. BMJ 1: 1051, 1113 Wooley CF, Fontana ME, Kilman JW, Ryan JM (1985) ‘tricuspid ste-nosis. Atrial systolic murmur, tricuspid opening snap, and right atrial pressure pulse. Am J Med 78: 375–384Google Scholar
  302. Zamorano J, Erbel R, Mackowski T, Alfonso E, Meyer J (1992) Usefulness of tranesophageal echocardiography for diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Am J Cardiol 69/4: 419–242Google Scholar
  303. Zile MR; Gaasch WH, Carroll JD, Levine HJ (1984) Chronic mitral regurgitation: Predictive value of preoperative echocardiographic indexes of left ventricular function and wall stress. J Am Coll Cardiol 3: 235–242Google Scholar
  304. Zippiroli A, Rinaldi M, Kramer-Fox R et al. (1995) Natural history of mitral valve prolapse. Am J Cardiol 75 (15): 1028–1032Google Scholar
  305. Zoghbi WA, Farmer KL, Soto JG, Nelson JG, Quinones MA (1986) Accurate noninvasive quantification of stenotic aortic valve area by Doppler echocardiography. Circulation 73: 452PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. A. Flachskampf
  • P. Hanrath

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations