Arterielle Hypertonie

  • P. M. Suter
  • W. Vetter

Zusammenfassung

In Abhängigkeit von der Erhöhung des systolischen und/oder des diastolischen Blutdrucks unterscheidet man verschiedene Formen der Hypertonie (s. Tabelle 38-1).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Joint National Committee on Detection, E., and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (1997) The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). Arch Intern Med 157: 2413–2446Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guidelines Subcommittee of the WHO/ISH Mild Hypertension Liasison Committee (1993) Guidelines for the management of mild hyperension. Hypertension 22: 392–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Veterans-Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents (1976) Effects of treatment and morbidity in hypertension. JAMA 202: 1028–1036Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    SHLP-Cooperative-Research-Group (1991) Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the systolic hypertension in the elderly program (SHED).lAMA 265: 3255–3264Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schmidt MI et al. (1996) Clustering of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, and hypertension and its association with fasting insulin and central and overall obesity in a general population. Atherosclerosis risk in Communities Study Investigators. Metabolism 45: 699 706Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ilouston,VI(: (1991) flypertcnsion strategies for therapeutic intervention and prevention of end-organ damage. Prim Care Clin North Mn 18: 713 753Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baba T, Ncugehaucr S (1994) ‘pm link between insulin resistance and hypertension.11iterts of antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemicdrugs on insulin sensitivity. Drugs 47: 383-4o4Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shepherd JT (1990) Increased systemic vascular resistance in primary hypertension: the expanding cumplexity. J I lypertens 8 (Suppl 7): S t5 s 19Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Joint National (,ununiltec on Detection, L., and Treatment of li pli I luod Press iru (n99;) The filth report of the Joint National(,nnunilteeun Doe) hum, h.valualion,and1reatinenlof Iligh ttluod t’ressllrcONC.V).Arch Intern Med 15i: 154 18;Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Laragh JH, Brenffner BM (199o) Hypertension. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management, vols I & II. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Swales JT (ed) (1994) Textbook of hypertension. Blackwell, London, p 1328Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kurtz TW, Spence MA (1993) Genetics of essential hypertension. Am J Med 94: 77–84Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Williams RR et al. (199o) Multigenic human hypertension: evidence for subtypes and hope for haplo-types. J Hypertens 8: S 39-S 45Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Caulfield M et al. (1994) Linkage of the angiotensinogen gene to essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 330: 1629–1633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lindpaintner K (1994) Genes, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. N Engl J Med 330: 1678–1679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kurokawa K, Okuda T (1998) Genetic and non-genetic basis of essential hypertension: maladaptation of human civilization to high salt intake. Hypertens Res 21: 67–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Laakso M, I:ehto S (1998) Epidemiology of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Atherosclerosis 137 (Suppl): S 65-S 73Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Whelton PK, He J, Klag MJ (1994) Blood pressure in westernized populations. In: Swales JD (ed) Textbook of hypertension. Blackwell, London, p 11–21Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gorey KM, Trevisan M (1998) Secular trends in the United States black/white hypertension prevalence ratio: potential impact of diminishing response rate. Am J Epidemiol 47: 95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Magrini F, Reggiani P (1992) Epidemiology of hypertension in Europe. bur I heart J 13 (Suppl li): 27–34Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vokonas PS, Kannel WB, Cupples LA (1988) Epidemiology and risk of hypertension in the elderly: the Framingham Study. J I lypertens 6 (Suppl 1): S 3 S 9Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferrannini E, Natali A (1991) The insulin resistance syndrome. Cardiovasc Risk I’m.- 1 /6: 386–392Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ferrannini F. et al. (1991) llyperinsulinaemia: the key feature of a cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome Diabetologia134:.110.t2_Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salvetti A et al. (1993) What effect dies blood pressure control 54• have on the progression toward renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 21 (Stipp’ 3): 10–15 55.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fournier AM, Hoenig LJ, Sosenko JM (1993) The degree of blood pressure evaluation and end organ damageevere hypertension: A case-control study. Am J Med Sci 306: 367–370Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sideris DA (1993) High blood pressure and ventricular arrhyth- 56. mias. Eur Heart J 14: 1548–1553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kay LE (1998) Accuracy of blood pressure measurement in the family practice center. J Am Board Fam Pract n: 252–258Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vetter H, Vetter W (1986) Praktische Hypertonie. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 119Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Netea RT et al. (1998) Does it matter whether blood pressure measurements are taken with subjects sitting or supine? J Hypertens 16: 263–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Akpunonu B, Mulrow P, Hoffman E (1996) Secondary hypertension: evaluation and treatment. Disease-A-Month Oct 96: 613–722Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wylie EJ, Perloff JS, Wellington JS (1962) Fibromuscuflar hyperplasia of the renal arteries. Ann Surg 156: 952–958Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Krijnen P et al. (1998) A clinical prediction rule for renal artery stenosis. Ann Intern Med 129: 705–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hany S et al. (1987) Circadian blood pressure variability in secondary and essential hypertension. J Hypertension 5 (Suppl 5): S 487-S 489Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tello R et al. (1998) Detection of renal arteries with fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging. Australas Radiol 42: 179–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Olbricht CJ, Arlart IP (1998) Magnetic resonance angiography–the procedure of choice to diagnose renal artery stenosis? Nephrol Dial Transplant 13: 1620–1622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hany TF et al. (1997) Evaluation of the aortoiliac and renal arteries: comparison of breath-hold, contrast-enhanced, three-dimensional MR angiography with conventional catheter angiography. Radiology 204: 357–362Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Arsenault TM et al. (1996) Systemic gadolinium toxicity in patients with renal insufficiency and renal failure: retrospective analysis of an initial experience. Mayo Clin Proc 71: 1150–1154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tello R et al. (1998) Standard dose Gd-DTPA dynamic MR of renal arteries. J Magn Reson Imag 8: 421–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mann SJ, Pickering TG (1992) Detection of renovscular hypertension: State of the art 1992. Ann Intern Med 117: 845–853Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Textor SC (1994) Renovascular hypertension. Endocrin Meta-hol Clin North Am 23: 235-253Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tuttle KR et al. (1998) Treatment of atherosclerotic ostial renal artery stenosis with the intravascular stellt. Am J Kidney Dis 32: 611–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sierre SD et al. (1998) ‘l’reatment of recurrent transplant renal artery stenosis with metallic stents. J Vase Intery Radiol 9: 639-644Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fiala LA et al. (1998) Primary stenting of atherosclerotic renal artery ostial stenosis. Ann Vasc Surg 12: 128–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stanley JC (1997) Surgical treatment of renovascular hypertension. Ans J Surg 174: 102–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cook DM (1997) Adrenal mass. Endocrinol Metahol Clin North Am 26: 829–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gartner F, Grotz W, Schollmeyer P (1998) Differenzierte Diagnostik and Therapie des primären Hyperaldosteronismus. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 123: 873–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gomez-Sanchez CE (1998) Primary aldosteronism and its variants. Cardiovasc Res 37: 8–3Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bravo EL (1994) Primary Hyperaldosteronisns. Issues in diagnosis and management. Endocrinol Metabol Clinics North Am 23: 271–283Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bravo EL, Tarazi RC, Dustan HP (1983) The changing clinical sepctrunt of primary aldosteronism. Am I Med 74: 641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dluhy RE, Litton RP (1994) Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism. Endocrinol Metabol Clin North Am 23: 285–297Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gifford RW, Manger WM, Bravo EL (1994)Pheochromozytonta. Endocrinol Metahol Clin North Ant 23: 387–405Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Xian XR et al. (1998) Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal tumours: a review of 35 years experience. Br I UroI 82: 199–205Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bravo EL (1994) Evolving concepts in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of phcochrontoivtonta. Endocrine Rev 15: 356–368Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Troncone L, Rufini V (1997) 131-I MIBG therapy of neural crest tumours (Review). Anticancer Res 17/3E: 1823–1831Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Loh KC et al. (1997) The treatment of malignant pheochromozytoma with iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (1311-MIBG): a comprehensive review of 116 reported patients. J Endocrinol Invest 20: 648–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kaplan NM (1998) Clinical hypertension. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 1–444Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vetter W, Feltkamp H (1991) Ambulante kontinuierliche Blutdruckselbstmessung (ABPM) vs. Blutdruckselbstmessung. Z Kardiol 80 (Suppl 1): 49–51Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Taylor RS et al. (1998) Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for hypertension in general practice. J R Soc Med 91: 301–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tochikubo O et al. (1998) Statistical hase value of 24-hour blood pressure distribution in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 32: 430–436Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Musso NR et al. (1997) Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: how reproducible is it? Am J Hypertens l0: 936–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    World Hypertension League (1988) Self-measurement of blood pressure. J Hypertens 6: 257–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Merrick RD et al. (1997) Factors influencing the accuracy of horn blood pressure measurement. South Med J 90: 1110–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Netea RT et al. (1998) Influence of the arm position on intra-arterial blood pressure measurement. J Hum Hypertens 12: 157–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    de-Gaudemaris R et al. (1996) Comparison of home and clinical blood pressue measurements: clinical applications. Z Kardiol 85 (Suppl 3): 60–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ohkubo T et al. (1998) Home blood pressure measurement has a stronger predictive power for mortality than does screening blood pressure measurement: a population-based observation onOhasama, Japan. J Hypertens 16: 971–975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hsueh WA, Buchanan TA (1994) Obesity and hypertension. Endocrin Metahol Clin North Am 23: 405–427Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Arakawa K (1993) Antihypertensive mechanism of exercise. J Hypertens u: 223–229Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Levine GN, Balady GI (1993) The benefits and risks of exercise training: the exercise prescription. Ads, Int Med 38: 57–79Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shephard RJ, Astrand PO (1993) Ausdauer im Sport. Eine Veröffentlichung des IOC in Zusammenarbeit mit der FIMS. Dtsch Ärzte-Verlag, KölnGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shephard RJ (1994) Aerobic fitness and health. Champaign/111.: Human Kinetics 358Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    INTERSAIJ Cooperative Research Group (1988) INTERSALT: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Br Med J. 297: 319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Muntzel M, Drüeke T (1992) A comprehensive review of the salt and blood pressure relationship. Ant J Hypertens 5:1 S-42 SGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Luft FC, Weinberger MIL, Grins CE (1982) Sodium sensitivity and resistance in normotensive humans. Ans 1 Med 72: 720–735Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Freeman ZS (1990) Streß and hypertension–a critical review. Med 1 Aust 153: 621–625Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Goldberger L, Breznitz S (1993) Handbook of stress. Theoreti-cal and clincal aspects. Free Press, New York, pp 1–519Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Suter PM, Vetter W (1993) Kaftee and Koffein. Einige ausgewahlte Aspekte fir den Praxisalltag. Schweiz Rundschau Med (PRAXIS) 82: 1122–1128Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Brater DC (1998) Diuretic therapy. N Engl I Aled 339: 387–395Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shinton RA, Beavers DG (1990) A meta-analysis of mortality and coronary prevention in hypertensive patients treated with 3-receptor blockers. J Hunt Hypertens 8 (Suppl 2): 31–36Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cruikshank ISl, Prichard BN(..: (1988) Beta-blockers in clinical practice. Churchill-Livingstone, Edinburgh, p 388Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nlesserli PH, Grossman E, Goldbourt U (1998) Are beta-blokkers efficacious as tirst-line therapy for hypertension in the eldcly? A systematic review. JAMA 2,79: 1903–1907Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Aronow WS (1997) “treatment of congestive heart failure in older persons. I Ant Genatr Soc 45: 1252–1257Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Constant I (1998) A review of why and how we tua: use betablockers in congestive heart failure. Chest 113: 800–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    van-Nueten IM et al. (19981 Nehivolol vs. niiedipine in the treatment of essential hypertension: A double-blind, randomized, contparativc trial. Ant I ‘flier 5: 237–243Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    van-Nueten L, Taylor FR,Robertson JIS (1998) Nebivolol vs atenolol and placebo in essential hypertension: a double-blind randomised trial. J Hum Hypertens 12: 135–140Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Psaty BM et al. (1995) The risk of myocardial infarction associated with antihypertensive drug therapies. JAMA 274: 620–625Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV (1995) Nifedipine. Dose related increase in mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 92: 1326–1331Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pahor M et al. (1995) Longterm survval and use of antihypertensive medications in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 43: 1191–1197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Held P, Yusuf S, Furberg CD (1989) Calcium channel blockers in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina: an overview. BY Med J 299: 1187–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Opie LH (1997)Mechanisms whereby calcium channal antagonists may protect patients with coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 18 (Suppl A): A92–1o4Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pepine CJ, Faich G, Makuch R (1998) Verapamil use in patients with cardiovascular disease: Am overview of randomized trials. Clin Cardiol 21: 633–641Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Messerli FH,Grossman E (1998) The calcium antagonist controversy: A posthumous commentary. Am J Cardiol 82: 35R–39RGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Alderman MH et al. (1997) Effect of long-acting and short acting calcium antagonists on cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients. Lancet 349. 594–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rangoonwala B, Schulz W, Bauer B (1996) Fixed dose combinations of ACE inhibitors. Br J Clin Pract 50: 454–465Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    GrobeckerH(1998)Angiotensin-Il-Rezeptorantagonisten.Wiss. Verlagsges., Stuttgart, S 1–126Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Goodfriend TL, Elliott ME, Catt KJ (1996) Angiotensin receptors and their antagonists. N Engl J Med 334: 1649-i654Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kang PM et al. (1994) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: A new approach to blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. Am Heart J 127: 1388–1401Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Csikos T, Chung O, Unger T (1998) Receptors and their classification: focus on angiotensin II and the AT, receptor. J Hum Hypertens 12: 311–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wber MA (1997) Comparison of type 1 angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension. J Hypertens (Suppl) 15: S 31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rush JE, Rajfer SI (1993) Theoretical basis for the use of angiotensin II antagonists in the treatment of heart failure. J Hypertens n (Suppl 3): 5 69–5 71Google Scholar
  100. l00.
    Pitt B et al. (1997) Randomised trial of losartan vs. captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure (Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly Study, ELITE). Lancet 349: 747–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Angeli P et al. (1991) Comparison of sublingual captopril and nifedipine in immediate treatment of hypertensive emergencies. A randomized, single-blind clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 151: 678–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dluhy RG (1998) Unvommon forms of secondary hypertension in older patients. Am J Hypertens 11: 52 S-56 SGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Amery A et al. (1985) Mortality and morbidity results from the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly Trial. Lancet I: 1349–1359Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dahlöf B et al. (1992) Further analyses of STOP-Hypertension–focus on secondary endpoints, side-effects and possible sex differences. J Hypertens 20 (Suppl 4): S 121–122Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Suter
  • W. Vetter

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations