A large proportion of the substances which fall under the heading of rock-forming minerals consist of silicates and oxides incorporating elements from Z =11 (Na) to Z = 28 (Ni) in addition to oxygen and hydrogen. The range of possible compositions is very large since such minerals often contain seven or eight component elements and the problem of selecting suitable standards for empirical calibration is considerable. Many workers in the field have advocated the use of analysed material covering a restricted range of composition near to that of the unknown (e.g. Smith, 1965, 1966a, b). More recently Bence and Albee (1968) have described the use of a few simple primary standards and have derived empirically the correction factors by comparison with analysed minerals under a given set of measuring conditions. These authors state that “The uncertainties which shroud the calculation of individual matrix effects are so great that an empirical determination of correction parameters is clearly necessary ”.


Wavelength Shift Electron Bombardment Empirical Calibration Magnesium Metal Artificial Glass 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. R. Sweatman
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. V. P. Long
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mineralogy and PetrologyUniversity of CambridgeEngland
  2. 2.C.S.I.R.O.Division of soinsGlen OsmondSouth Australia

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