Hormones in Mycelial Fungi

  • G. W. Gooday
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 1)


The major means that a fungus has to monitor the environment is through its chemosensory system. Thus, it is not surprising that specific chemicals are used as signalling molecules in a range of activities of fungal cells. These chemicals are diverse in their chemical structures, in their effective concentrations, in their specificities and in their types of action. This chapter discusses non-nutritional chemical control of growth and development of fungi, concentrating on hormones, but also considering other chemicals with effects that are apparently specific. The term “hormone” will be used in its broadest sense as defined by Huxley (1935) as “a chemical substance produced by one tissue with the primary function of exerting a specific effect of functional value on another tissue”.


Sexual Reproduction Neurospora Crassa Aspergillus Nidulans Schizophyllum Commune Opposite Mating Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arpin N, Bouillant ML (1981) Light and mycosporines. In: Turian G, Hohl HR (eds) The fungal spore: mor-phogenetic controls. Academic Press, London, pp 435–454Google Scholar
  2. Austin DJ, Bu’Lock JD, Gooday GW (1969) Trisporic acids: sexual hormones from Mucor mucedo and Blakeslea trispora. Nature 223:1178–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bistis GN (1981) Chemotropic interactions between trichogynes and conidia of opposite mating type in Neuro- spora crassa. Mycologia 73:959–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bistis GN (1983) Evidence for diffusible, mating-type-specific trichogyne attractants in Neurospora crassa. Exp Mycol 7:292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bistis GN, Georgopolous SG (1979) Some aspects of sexual reproduction in Nectria haematococca var. Cucurbitae. Mycologia 71:127–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bistis GN, Olive LS (1968) Induction of antheridia in Ascobolus stercorarius. Am J Bot 55:629–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blakeslee AF (1904) Sexual reproduction in the Mucori-neae. Proc Natl Acad Arts Sci 40:205–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brasier CM (1975) Stimulation of sex organ formation in Phytophthora by antagonistic species of Trichoderma. 1. The effect in vitro. New Phytol 74:183–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buller AHR (1933) Researches in fungi, vol 5. Longmans Green, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Bu’Lock JD, Jones BE, Winskill N (1976) The apocaro-tenoid system of sex hormones and prohormones in Mucorales. Pure Appl Chem 47:191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burgeff H (1924) Untersuchungen über Sexualität und Parasitismus bei Mucorineen I. Bot Abh 4:1–135Google Scholar
  12. Burnett JH (1976) Fundamentals of mycology, 2nd edn. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Champe SP, El-Zayat AAE (1989) Isolation of a sexual sporulation hormone from Aspergillus nidulans. J Bacteriol 171:3982–3988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Champe SP, Rao P, Chang A (1987) An endogenous inducer of sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. J Gen Microbiol 133:1383–1387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Drinkard LC, Nelson GE, Sutter RP (1982) Growth arrest: a prerequisite for sexual development in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Exp Mycol 6:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Driver CH, Wheeler HE (1955) A sexual hormone from Glomerella. Mycologia 47:311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dyer PS, Ingram DS, Johnstone K (1992) The control of sexual morphogenesis in the Ascomycotina. Biol Rev 67:421–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dyer PS, Ingram DS, Johnstone K (1993) Evidence for the involvement of linoleic acid and other endogenous lipid factors in perithecial development of Nectria haemato-cocca mating population VI. Mycol Res 97:485–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elliott CG (1979) Influence of the structure of the sterol molecule on sterol-induced reproduction in Phytophthora cactorum. J Gen Microbiol 115:117–126Google Scholar
  20. Elliott CG (1983) Physiology of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. In: Erwin DC, Bartnicki-Garcia S, Tsao PH (eds) Phytophthora: its biology, taxonomy, ecology and pathology. American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, pp 71–80Google Scholar
  21. Elliott CG, Glen B (1982) Sterol requirements of mating strains of heterothallic phytophthoras. J Gen Microbiol 128:859–863Google Scholar
  22. Fawell SE, McKenzie MA, Greenfield NJ, Adebodun F, Jordan F, Lenard J (1988) Stimulation by mammalian insulin of glycogen metabolism in a wall-less strain of Neurospora crassa. Endocrinology 122:518–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Feldman D, Do Y, Burshell A, Stathis P, Loose DS (1982) An estrogen binding protein and endogenous ligand in Saccharomyces cerivisiae: a possible hormone receptor system. Science 218:297–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feldman D, Tokes LG, Stathis PA, Miller SC, Kurz W, Harvey D (1984) Identification of 17-β-estradiol as the estrogenic substance in S. cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:4722–4726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gall AM, Elliott CG (1985) Control of sexual reproduction in Pythium sylvaticum. Trans Br Mycol Soc 84:629–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gooday GW (1968) Hormonal control of sexual reproduction in Mucor mucedo. New Phytol 67:815–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gooday GW (1973) Differentiation in the Mucorales. Symp Soc Gen Microbiol 23:269–294Google Scholar
  28. Gooday GW (1974) Fungal sex hormones. Annu Rev Biochem 43:35–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gooday GW (1975) Chemotaxis and chemotropism in fungi and algae. In: Carlile MJ (ed) Primitive sensory and communication systems. Academic Press, London, pp 155–204Google Scholar
  30. Gooday GW (1978) Functions of trisporic acid. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 284:509–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gooday GW (1983) Hormones and sexuality in fungi. In: Bennett JW, Ciegler A (eds) Secondary metabolism and differentiation in fungi. Dekker, New York, pp 239–266Google Scholar
  32. Gooday GW, Adams DJ (1992) Sex hormones and fungi. Adv Microb Physiol 34:69–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Greenfield NJ, McKenzie MA, Adebodun F, Jordan F, Lenard J (1988) Metabolism of D-glucose in a wall-less mutant of Neurospora crassa examined by 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonances: effects of insulin. Biochemistry 27:8526–8533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Greenfield NJ, Cherapak CN, Adebodun F, Jordan F, Lenard J (1990) Intracellular sodium content of a wall-less strain of Neurospora crassa and effects of insulin: a 23Na-NMR study. Biochim Biophys Acta 1025:15–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gruen HE (1982) Control of stipe elongation by the pileus and mycelium in fruitbodies of Flammulina velutipes and other Agaricales. In: Wells K, Wells EK (eds) Basidium and basidiocarp. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 125–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Guo LY, Ko WH (1991) Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction and mating type change in heterothallic Pythium splendens. Mycol Res 95:452–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Herman RP, Herman CA (1985) Prostoglandins or prostoglandin-like substances are implicated in normal growth and development in Oomycetes. Prostoglandins 29:819–830Google Scholar
  38. Huxley JS (1935) Chemical regulation and the hormone concept. Biol Rev 10:427–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ilott TW, Ingram DS, Rawlinson CJ (1986) Evidence of a chemical factor involved in the control of sexual development in the light leaf spot fungus Pyrenopeziza bras-sicae (Ascomycotina). Trans Br Mycol Soc 87:303–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Islam MS (1981) Sex pheromones in Neurospora crassa. In: O’Day DH, Horgen PA (eds) Sexual interactions in eukaryotic microbes. Academic Press, New York, pp 131–154Google Scholar
  41. Jones BE, Williamson IP, Gooday GW (1981) Sex pheromones in Mucor. In: O’Day DH, Horgen PA (eds) Sexual interactions in eukaryotic microbes. Academic Press, New York, pp 179–198Google Scholar
  42. Kawai G (1987) Biological and scanning electron microscope analysis of the inducing effect of a cerebroside on fruiting of Schizophyllum commune. Trans Mycol Soc Jpn 28:107–119Google Scholar
  43. Kawai G, Ikeda Y (1985) Structure of biologically active and inactive cerebrosides prepared from Schizophyllum commune. J Lipid Res 26:338–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kerwin JL, Duddles ND (1989) Reassessment of the role of phospholipids in sexual reproduction by sterol-auxotrophic fungi. J Bacteriol 171:3831–3839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kerwin JL, Washino RK (1983) Sterol induction of sexual reproduction in Legenidium giganteum. Exp Mycol 7:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ko WH (1983) Isolation and partial characterization of a hormones produced by Phytophthora parasitica. J Gen Microbiol 129:1397–1401Google Scholar
  47. Ko WH (1985) Stimulation of sexual reproduction of Phytophthora cactorum by phospholipids. J Gen Microbiol 131:2591–2594Google Scholar
  48. Ko WH (1988) Hormonal heterothallism and homothal-lism in Phytophthora. Annu Rev Phytopathol 26:57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kole HK, Lenard J (1991) Insulin-induced stimulation of protein phosphorylation in Neurospora crassa cells. FASEB J 5:2728–2734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kole HK, Muthukumar G, Lenard J (1991) Purification and properties of a membrane-bound insulin binding protein, a putative receptor, from Neurospora crassa. Biochemistry 30:682–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kole HK, Smith DR, Lenard J (1992) Characterization and partial purification of an insulinase from Neurospora crassa. Arch Biochem Biophys 297:199–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lenard J (1992) Mammalian hormones in microbial cells. Trends Biochem Sci 17:147–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Le Roith D, Shiloach J, Roth J, Lesniak MA (1980) Evolutionary origins of vertebrate hormones: substances similar to mammalian insulins are native to unicellular eukaryotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 6184–6188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Loose DS, Schurman DJ, Feldman D (1981) A corticosteroid protein and endogenous ligand in Candida albicans indicating a possible steroid-receptor system. Nature 293:477–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Machlis L (1958) A study of sirenin, the chemotactic sexual hormone from the water mold Allomyces. Physiol Plant 11:845–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Machlis L (1972) The coming of age of sex hormones in plants. Mycologia 64:235–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Machlis L (1973) Factors affecting the stability and accuracy of the bioassay for the sperm attractant sirenin. Plant Physiol 52:524–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Machlis L, Nutting WH, William MW, Rapoport H (1966) Production, isolation and characterization of sirenin. Biochemistry 5:2147–2152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mazur P, Meyers HV, Nakanishi K, El-Kayat AAE, Champe SP (1990) Structural elucidation of sporogenic fatty acid metabolites from Aspergillus nidulans. Tetrahedron Lett 31:3837–3840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McKenzie MA, Fawell SE, Cha M, Lenard J (1988) Effects of mammalian insulin on metabolism, growth and morphology of a wall-less strain of Neurospora crassa. Endocrinology 122:511–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McMorris TC (1978) Antheridiol and the oogoniols, steroid hormones which control sexual reproduction in Achlya. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 248:459–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mesland DAM, Huisman JG, Van den Ende H (1974) Volatile sexual hormones in Mucor mucedo. J Gen Microbiol 80:111–117Google Scholar
  63. Miller SC, Bottema CDK, Stathis PA, Tokes LG, Feldman D (1986) Unexpected presence of estrogens in culture medium supplements: subsequent metabolism by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Endocrinology 119: 1362–1369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Müller D, Jaffe LF (1965) A quantitative study of cellular rheotropism. Biophys J 5:317–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Muthukumar G, Lenard J (1991) A pro-insulin-like pseudogene from Neurospora crassa. Mol Cell Endocrinol 82:275–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nelson RR (1971) Hormonal involvement in sexual reproduction in the fungi with special reference to F-2, a fungal estrogen. In: Akai S, Ouchi S (eds) Morphological and biochemical events in the plant-parasite interaction. The Phytopathological Society of Japan, Tokyo, pp 181–205Google Scholar
  67. Nes WD, Patterson GW, Bean GA (1980) Effect of steric and nuclear changes in steroids and triterpenoids in sexual reproduction in Phytophthora cactorum. Plant Physiol 66:1008–1011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nutting WH, Rapoport H, Machlis L (1968) The structure of sirenin. J Am Chem Soc 90:6434–6438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Plasencia J, Mirocha CJ (1990) Production of zearalenone sulphate by Fusarium spp. Phytopathology 80:1019Google Scholar
  70. Pommerville J (1981) The role of sexual pheromones in Allomyces. In: O’Day DH, Horgen PA (eds) Sexual interactions in eukaryotic microbes. Academic Press, New York, pp 53–92Google Scholar
  71. Pommerville J, Olsen LW (1987) Evidence for a male-produced pheromone in Allomyces macrogynus. Exp Mycol 11:245–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pommerville JC, Strickland JB, Romo D, Harding KE (1988) Effects of analogs of the fungal sex pheromone sirenin on male gamete motility in Allomyces macrogynus. Plant Physiol 88:139–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Powell BL, Drutz DJ, Huppert M, Sun SH (1983) Relationship of progesterone- and estradiol-binding proteins in Coccidioides immitis to coccidioidal dissemination in pregnancy. Infect Immun 40:478–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Raper JR (1952) Chemical regulation of sexual processes in the thallophytes. Bot Rev 18:447–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Robinson PM (1973) Autotropism in fungal spores and hyphae. Bot Rev 39:367–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sakata K, Rickards RW (1980) Synthesis of homothallin II. In: Proc 23rd Symp Natural Products, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, pp 165–172Google Scholar
  77. Siddiq AA, Ingram DS, Johnstone K, Friend J, Ashby AM (1989) The control of asexual and sexual development by morphogens in fungal pathogens. Aspects Appl Biol 23:417–426Google Scholar
  78. Stevens DA (1989) The interface of mycology and endocrinology. J Med Vet Mycol 27:133–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sutter RP, Whitaker JP (1981) Zygophore-stimulating precursors (pheromones) of trisporic acids active in (—) Phycomyces blakesleeanus. J Biol Chem 256:2334–2341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sutter RP, Zawodny PD (1984) Apotrisporin: a major metabolite of Blakeslea trispora. Exp Mycol 8:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Uno I, Ishikawa T (1973) Purification and identification of fruiting-inducing substances in Coprinus macrorhizus. J Bacteriol 113:1240–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Van den Ende H (1967) Sexual factor of the Mucorales. Nature 215:211–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Van den Ende H (1984) Sexual interactions in the lower filamentous fungi. In: Linskens HF, Heslop-Harrison J (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, vol 17. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 333–349Google Scholar
  84. Vigfusson NV, Cano RJ (1974) Artificial induction of the sexual cycle in Neurospora crassa. Nature 249:383–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ward HM (1888) A lily disease. Ann Bot 2:319–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Windeis CE, Mirocha CJ, Abbas HK, Weiping X (1989) Perithecium production in Fusarium graminearum populations and lack of correlation with zearalenone production. Mycologia 81:272–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wolf JC, Mirocha CJ (1973) Regulation of sexual reproduction in Gibberella zeae (Fusarium roseum “Graminearum”) by F-2 (zearalenone). Can J Microbiol 19:725–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zickler H (1952) Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Askomyceten Bombardia lunata. Arch Protistenkd 98:1–71Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. W. Gooday
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Marchial CollegeUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations