Control Charts for Environmental Data

  • H. Schneider
  • Y. Hui
  • J. M. Pruett
Conference paper
Part of the Frontiers in Statistical Quality Control 4 book series (FSQC, volume 4)

Abstract

The ability to accurately monitor the level of toxic pollutants present in the environment has become a problem of great concern to government, business, the public, and to researchers. Recently, the EPA suggested using control charts to monitor toxic pollutants in the environment. However, the reporting procedures used are complicated by at least three factors. First, the sample sizes used to characterize the mean level of a toxic contaminant are typically small. The primary reason for taking small samples is simply a matter of technology and economics, i.e., measurements of toxic contaminants usually involve expensive laboratory tests. As a result, the estimated mean value of a given pollutant is based only on a small sample of observations. Even so, when the underlying data from which the sample has been drawn were to follow a normal distribution, the usual small-sample confidence intervals are often very wide.

Keywords

Assure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Box, G.E.P., and Cox, D.R. (1964). “An Analysis of Transformations” (with discussion), Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Ser. B, Vol. 39, pp. 211–252.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Cohen, A.C. (1959). “Simplified Estimators for the Normal Distribution When Samples Are Singly Censored or Truncated,” Technometrics, Vol. 1, pp. 217–237.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Cox, D.R., and Hinkley, D.V. (1974). Theoretical Statistics. London, England. Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Schneider, H. (1985). “The Performance of Variable Sampling When the Normal Distribution Is Truncated,” Journal of Quality Technology, Vol. 17, No. 2, 74–78.Google Scholar
  5. (5]
    Schneider, H. (1986). Truncated and. Censored Samples from Normal Population. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Johnson, N.L., and Kotz, S. (1970). Continuous Univariate Distributions. John Wiley & Son, Inc. New York, NY.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Hinkley, D.V., and Runger, G. (1984). “The Analysis of Transformed Data” (with discussion), Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 79, pp. 302–320.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Shumway, R.H. Azari, A.S., and Johnson, P. (1989). “Estimating Mean Concentrations Under Transformation for Environmental Data with Detection Limits,” Technometrics, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Measure of Air Quality: The New Pollutant Standard Index,” July 1978, OPA 11/8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Schneider
    • 1
  • Y. Hui
    • 1
  • J. M. Pruett
    • 1
  1. 1.Baton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations