Vortex Formation at Pipe-Offtake in an Open Channel
Intakes are usually more economical, easier to operate and draw less silt when they are located near the free surface. However, it has been frequently observed that, when the water depth above the intake is low, vortices are formed which may lead to air-entrainment. The presence of air in the water leads to increased vibrations and noise. It can also affect the efficiency of the hydraulic machine to which the intake supplies the water. It is therefore essential to set the intake so as to eliminate vortex formation.
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