An article in the Berliner klinische Wochenschrift in 1900 by Ehrlich and Morgenroth which described blood groups in goats based on antigens of their red cells led Karl Landsteiner, a Viennese pathologist, to successfully identify the human ABO blood groups. He took samples of his own blood from his colleagues Sturli and Ardhein, Dr. Pietschnig and his assistant Zaritsch. The small tables Landsteiner used to illustrate his reasoning bear the names of these colleagues. In 1902, Sturli and Alfred Descastello, under Landsteiner’s direction, designated one more group which was actually not named “AB” until 10 years later when von Dungen and Hirszfeld studying the genetic inheritance of blood types, designated the fourth type and gave Landsteiner’s “C” group the designated O. It was for this discovery, rather than his elegant studies on immunochemical specificity, that he won the Nobel Prize in Medicine 30 years later.
KeywordsCarbohydrate Disulfide Bilirubin Malaria Thrombocytopenia
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