Advertisement

Pathologie

  • D. Pauleikhoff
  • F. G. Holz
  • A. C. Bird

Zusammenfassung

Drusen sind die ersten histologischen Veränderungen einer frühen AMD. Es können harte, weiche und flächige Drusen in den inneren Schichten der Bruchsche Membran unterschieden werden. Harte Drusen bestehen aus hyalinem, fein granulärem, homogenem Material. Weiche Drusen sind als Aufspaltung der inneren kollagenen Schicht der Bruchsche Membran mit Einlagerung von vesikulärem Material gekennzeichnet. Flächige Drusen sind flächige Ablagerungen, die fast ausschließlich histologisch nachweisbar sind als „basal linear deposits“ im Bereich der inneren Bruchschen Membran oder als „basal laminar deposits“ zwischen der Basalmembran der RPE-Zellen und der Zytoplasmamembran des RPE.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Archer DB, Gardiner TA (1981a) Morphologic, fluorescein angiographic, and light microsco pic features of experimental choroidal neovascularisation. Am J Ophthalmol 91: 297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer DB, Gardiner TA (1981b) Electron microscopic features of experimental choroidal neovascularisation. Am J Ophthalmol 91: 433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barondes MJ, Pauleikhoff D, Chisholm IH, Minassian D, Bird AC (1990) Bilaterality of dru-sen. Br J Ophthalmol 74: 180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bird AC (1991) Pathogenesis of retinal pigment epithelial detachment in the elderly; the relevance of Bruch’s membrane change. Eye 5: 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bird AC (1993) Choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular disease. Br J Ophthalmol 77: 614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bird AC, Marshall J (1986) Retinal pigment epithelial detachments in the elderly. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 105: 674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Borges JM, Tso MOM (1988) Atrophic form of age-related macular degeneration: a clinicopathological study. Exp Ophthalmol (Coimbra) 14: 41Google Scholar
  8. Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Fine SL (1988a) Age-related macular degeneration. Sury Ophthalmol 32: 375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Seddon JM, Gragoudas ES, Jacobson LP (1988b) Drusen characteristics in patients with exudative versus non-exudative age-related macular degeneration. Retina 8: 109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burns RP (1980) Clinico-morphologic correlations of drusen of Bruch’s membrane. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 68: 206Google Scholar
  11. Campochiaro PA, Jerdan JA, Glaser BM (1986) The extracellular matrix of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vivo and its synthesis in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27: 1615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Capon MRC, Marshall J, Krafft JI, Bird AC, Alexander RA, Hiscott PS (1989) Sorsby’s fundus dystrophie: a light and electron microscopic study. Ophthalmology 96: 1769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Casswell AG, Kohnen D, Bird AC (1985) Retinal pigment epithelial detachments in the elderly: classification and outcome. Br J Ophthalmol 69: 397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen JC, Fitzke FW, Pauleikhoff D, Bird AC (1992) Functional loss in age-related Bruch’s membrane change with choroidal perfusion defects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 33: 334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chuang EL, Bird AC (1988) The pathogenesis of tears of the retinal pigment Epithelium. Am J Ophthalmol 105: 285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coffey AJH, Brownstein S (1986) The prevalence of macular drusen in post mortem eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 102: 164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dastgheib K, Green RG (1994) Granulomatous reaction to Bruch’s membrane in age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 112: 813Google Scholar
  18. Delori FC, Dorey CK, Staurenghi G, Arend O, Goger DG, Weiter JJ (1995) In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36: 718Google Scholar
  19. Donders FC (1855) Die Metamorphose der Pigmentschicht der Choroidea. Arch Ophthalmol 1: 107Google Scholar
  20. Dorey CK, Wu G, Ebenstein D, Garsd A, Weiter JJ (1989) Cell loss in the aging retina. Relationship to lipofuscin accumulation and macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 30: 1691Google Scholar
  21. Farkas TG (1971) Drusen of the retinal rigment epithelium. Sury Ophthalmol 16: 75Google Scholar
  22. Feeney-Burns L, Ellersieck MR (1985) Age-related changes in the ultrastructure of Bruch’s membrane. Am J Ophthalmol 100: 686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Feeney-Burns L, Burns RP, Gao C-L. (1990) Age-related macular changes in humans over 90 years old. Am J Ophthalmol 109: 265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fine AM, Elman MJ, Ebert JE, Prestia PA, Starr JS, Fine SL (1986) Earliest symptoms caused by neovascular membranes in the macula. Arch Ophthalmol 104: 513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fisher RF (1982) The water permeability of basement membrane under increasing pressure: evidence for a new theory of permeability. Proc R Soc Lond [B] 216: 475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Foulds WS (1976) Clinical significance of trans-scleral fluid transfer. Doyne Memorial Lecture. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 96: 290Google Scholar
  27. Gass JDM (1967) Pathogenesis of disciform detachment of the neuroepithelium. 3. Senile disciform macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 63: 617Google Scholar
  28. Gass JD (1973) Drusen and disciform macular detachment and degeneration. Arch Oph-thalmol 90: 206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Glaser BM, Campochiaro PA, Davies JL, Sato M (1985) Retinal pigment epithelial cells release inhibitor of neovascularisation. Arch Ophthalmol 103: 1870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Green WR, Enger C (1993) Age-related macular degeneration histopathologic studies (The 1992 Lorenz E. Zimmermann Lecture ). Ophthalmology loo: 1519Google Scholar
  31. Green WR, McDonnell PJ, Yeo JH (1985) Pathologic features of senile macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 92: 615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Grossniklaus HE, Hutchinson AK, Capone A, Woolfson J, Lambert HM (1994) Clinicopathologic features of surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes. Ophthalmology 101: 1099Google Scholar
  33. Hogan MJ (1965) Symposium: Macular diseases, pathogenesis: electron microscopy of Bruch’s membrane. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 69: 683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Holz FG, Sheraidah G, Pauleikhoff D, Bird AC (1994 a) Analysis of lipid deposits extracted from human macular and peripheral Bruch’s membrane. Arch Ophthalmol 112: 402Google Scholar
  35. Holz FG, Wolfensberger TJ, Piguet B, Gross-Jendroska M, Wells JA, Minassian DA, Chisholm IH, Bird AC (1994 b) Bilateral Macular Drusen in Age-related Macular Degeneration: Prognosis and Risk Factors. Ophthalmology îo1: 1522Google Scholar
  36. Holz FG, Gross-Jendroska M, Eckstein A, Hogg CR, Arden GB, Bird AC (1995) Colour con-trast sensitivity in patients with age-related Bruch’s membrane changes. German J Ophthalmol 4: 336Google Scholar
  37. Ishibashi T, Sorgente N, Patterson R, Ryan SJ (1986a) Pathogenesis of drusen in the primate. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27: 184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ishibashi T, Patterson R, Ohnishi Y, Inomata H, Ryan SJ (1986b) Formation of drusen in the human eye. Am J Ophthalmol loi: 342Google Scholar
  39. Junius P, Kuhnt H (1926) Die scheibenförmige Entartung der Netzhautmitte. Karger, Berlin, S 132Google Scholar
  40. Killingworth MC, Sarks JP, Sarks SH (1990) Macrophages related to Bruch’s membrane in age-related macular degeneration. Eye 4: 613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kliffen M, Mooy CM, Luider TM, Jong PTVM de (1994) Analysis of carbohydrate structures in Basal laminar deposit in aging human maculae. Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci 35: 2901Google Scholar
  42. LaCour M (1989) Coupled transport of Na+ and HCO3- across the retinal membrane in frog RPE. In: Zingirian M, Piccolino FC, Kugler (eds) Retinal pigment epithelium. Ghedini Publications, Amsterdam, pp 29Google Scholar
  43. Loeffler KU, Lee WR (1986) Basal linear deposits in the human macula. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 224: 493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marshall GE, Konstas AGP, Reid G, Edwards JG, Lee WR (1994) Collagens in the age-related macula. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 232: 133Google Scholar
  45. Marshall J (1987) The ageing retina: physiology or pathology. Eye 1: 282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller H, Miller B, Ryan SJ (1986a) Newly-formed subretinal vessels: fine structure and fluorescein leakage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27: 204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Miller H, Miller B, Ryan SJ (1986b) The role of retinal pigment epithelium in the involution of subretinal neovascularisation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27: 1644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Moore DJ, Hussain AA, Marshall J (1995) Age-related variation in the hydraulic conductivity of Bruch’s membrane. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36: 1290Google Scholar
  49. Müller H (1856) Anatomische Beiträge zur Ophthalmologie: 1. Untersuchungen über die Glashäute des Auges, insbesondere die Glaslamelle der Choroidea und ihre senilen Veränderungen. Arch Ophthalmol 2: 1Google Scholar
  50. Pauleikhoff D, Barondes MJ, Minassian D, Chisholm IH, Bird AC (199oa) Drusen as risk factors in age related macular disease. Am J Ophthalmol 109: 38Google Scholar
  51. Pauleikhoff D, Bird AC, Olver J, Maguire J, Sheriadah G, Marshall J (199ob) The correlation of choriocapillaris and Bruch’s membrane changes in aging. 62. Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Sarasota, Florida, USA, Mai1989. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci [Su pl] 31: 47Google Scholar
  52. Pauleikhoff D, Harper A, Marshall J, Bird AC (199oc) Aging changes in Bruch’s membrane. A histochemical and morphologic study. Ophthalmology 97: 171Google Scholar
  53. Pauleikhoff D, Züls S, Sheraidah GS, Wessing A, Marshall J, Bird AC (1992) Correlation between biochemical composition and fluorescein binding of deposits in Bruch’s membrane. Ophthalmology 99: 1548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Penfold PL, Killingworth MC, Sarks SH (1985) Senile macular degeneration: the involvment of immunocompetent cells. Graefe’s Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol 223: 69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ramarattan RS, Schaft TL van der, Mooy CM, Bruijn WC de, Mulder PGH, Jong PTVM de (1994) Morphometric analysis of Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris, and the choroid in aging. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 35: 28–57Google Scholar
  56. Sarks SH (1976) Ageing and degeneration in the macular region: a clinico-pathological study. Br J Ophthalmol 60: 324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sarks SH, van Driel D, Maxwell L, Killingworth M (198o) Softening of drusen and subretinal neovascularisation. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 100: 414Google Scholar
  58. Sarks JP, Sarks SH, Killingsworth MC (1988) Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Eye 2: 552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schaft TL van der, Bruijn WC de, Mooy CM, Ketelaars DAM, Jong PTVM de (1991) Is basal laminar deposit unique for age-related macular degeneration? Arch Ophthalmol 109: 420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schaft TL van der, Mooy CM, Bruijn WC de, Bosman FT, Jong PTVM de (1994) Immunhistochemical light and electron microscopy of basal laminar deposit. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 232: 40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sheraidah G, Steinmetz R, Maguire J, Pauleikhoff D, Marshall J, Bird AC (1993) Correlation between lipids extracted from Bruch’s membrane and age. Ophthalmology loo: 47Google Scholar
  62. Soubrane G, Coscas G, Francais C, Koenig F (1990) Occult subretinal new vessels in age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 97: 649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Steinberg RH, Miller SS (1979) Transport and membrane properties of the retinal pigment epithelium. In: Zinn KM, Marmor MF (eds) The retinal pigment epithelium. Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge/MA, pp 205Google Scholar
  64. Wedl C (1854) Rudiments of pathological histology. Busk, London, p 282Google Scholar
  65. Young RW (1987) Pathophysiology of the age-related macular degeneration. Sury Ophthalmol 31: 291CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Pauleikhoff
  • F. G. Holz
  • A. C. Bird

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations