Advertisement

Therapie und Prophylaxe

  • Herman-J. Gelmers
  • Günter Krämer
  • Werner Hacke
  • Michael Hennerici

Zusammenfassung

Bei den meisten Schlaganfallpatienten steht zwar die aktuelle neurologische Symptomatik im Mittelpunkt — Therapie und Prognose werden aber entscheidend von den fast immer vorhandenen internistischen Grund- und Begleitkrankheiten bestimmt. In der Akuttherapie muß daher von Beginn an auf kardiovaskuläre Störungen (Herzinfarkt, Klappenfehler, Herzrhythmusstörungen, Hypertonie), Nierenfunktionsstörungen und Diabetes mellitus geachtet werden. Die frühzeitige Aufdeckung und Behandlung internistischer Probleme kann später schwer zu beherrschende Komplikationen verhindern helfen. So kann z. B. die hypervolämische Therapie mit niedermolekularen Dextranen eine latente Herzinsuffizienz manifest werden lassen und, anstatt zu helfen, den Patienten ins Rechtsherzversagen und ins Lungenödem bringen.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Agnoli A, Palene N, Ruggieri S, Leonardis G, Benzi G (1979) Barbiturate treatment of acute stroke. Adv Neurol 25: 269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Canadian Co-operative Study Group (1985) Persantine aspirin trial in cerebral ischaemia. Stroke 16: 406Google Scholar
  3. Baker RN (1961) An evaluation of anticoagulant therapy in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Report of the Veterans Administration Cooperative Study of Atherosclerosis. Neurology 11: 132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker RN, Broward JA, Fang HC (1962) Anticoagulant therapy in cerebral infarction. Neurology 12: 823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barthel D, Mahoney F (1965) Functional evaluation. The Barthel index. State Med J 2: 61Google Scholar
  6. Basmajian JV (1979) Biofeed back: Principles and Practice for Clinicians Williams and Willkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  7. Bass E (1983) Anticoagulation in cerebral embolism. Can J Neurol Sci 10: 32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer RB, Tellez H (1973) Dexamethasone as treatment in cerebral vascular disease II. A controlled study in acute cerebral infarction. Stroke 4: 547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayer AJ, Pathy MSJ, Newcombe R (1987) Double-blind randomized trial of intravenous glycerol in acute stroke. Lancet I: 405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bousser MG, Eschwege E, Haguenau M (1983) “AICLA” controlled randomized trial of aspirin and dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of athero-thrombotic cerebral ischemia. Stroke 14: 5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boysen G, Soelberg Sorensen P, Jutzler M, Andersen AR, Boas J, Olsen JS, Joensen P (1988) Danish very-lowe-dose aspirin after carotid endarterectomy trial. Stroke 19: 1211–1215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brain Resuscitation Clinical Trial Study Group (1986) Randomized clinical study of thiopental loading in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 314: 397Google Scholar
  13. Britton M, DeFaire U, Helmers C, Miah K (1980) Lack of effect of theophylline on the outcome of acute cerebral infarction. Acta Neurol Scand 62: 116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brückmann H, Ferbert A, del Zoppo GJ, Hacke W, Zeumer H (1987) Acute vertebral basilar thrombosis: Angiologic-clinical comparison and therapeutic implications. Acta Radiol 369: 38Google Scholar
  15. Brückmann H, Ringelstein EB, Buchner H, Zeumer H (1986) Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the vertebral artery: A therapeutic alternative to operative reconstruction of proximal vertebral artery stenosis. J Neurol 233: 336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brudny J, Korein J, Levidow L, Grynbaum BB, Lieberman A, Friedmann LW (1974) Sensory feedback therapy as a modality of treatment in central nervous system disorders of voluntary movement. Neurology 24: 925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brudny J, Korein J, Grynbaum BB, Friedmann LW, Weinstein S, Sachs-Frankel G, Belandres PV (1976) EMG feedback therapy: Review of treatment of 114 patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 57: 55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Calandre L, Ortega JF, Berbejo F, Portera A (1983) Cerebral embolism and anticoagulation. Neurology 33: 1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Canadian Cooperative Study (1978) A randomized trial of aspirin and sulfinpyrazon in threatened stroke. N Engl J Med 299: 53Google Scholar
  20. Candelise L, Spinnler H (1972) Dexamethasone and stroke. Med J Aust 2: 335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Candelise L (1982) A randomized trial of aspirin and sulfinpyrazone in patients with TIA. Stroke 13: 175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Candelise L, Colombo A, Spinnler H (1975) Therapy against brain swelling in stroke patients, a retrospective clinical study on 227 patients. Stroke 6: 353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carter AP (1961) Anticoagulant treatment in progressive stroke. Br Med J II: 70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cerebral Embolism Study Group (1983) Immediate anticoagulation of embolic stroke: A randomized trial. Stroke 14: 668Google Scholar
  25. Cook P, James I (1981) Cerebral vasodilators. N Engl J Med 305: 1560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crisostomo EA, Duncan PW, Propst M, Dawson D, Davis JN (1988) Evidence that amphetamine with physical therapy promotes recovery of motor function in stroke patients. Ann Neurol 23: 94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. del Zoppo GJ, Zeumer H, Harker LA (1986) Thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke: Possibilities and hazards. Stroke 17: 595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. del Zoppo GJ, Ferbert A, Otis S, Brückmann H, Hacke W, Zyroff J, Arke LA, Zeumer H (1988) Local intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy in acute carotid territory stroke. A pilot study. Stroke 19: 307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dyken M, White PT (1956) Evaluation of cortisone in the treatment of cerebral infarction. JAMA 162: 1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. EC/IC Bypass Study Group (1985) Failure of extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 313: 1191Google Scholar
  31. Edward WH, Mulherin JL (1985) The surgical reconstruction of the proximal subclavian and vertebral artery. J Vasc Surg 2: 634Google Scholar
  32. Enger E, Boyesen S (1965) Long-term anticoagulant therapy in patients with cerebral infarction. Acta Med Scand 178 (Suppl 438): 1Google Scholar
  33. ESPS Group (1987) The European Stroke Prevention Study. Lancet II: 1351Google Scholar
  34. Feeney DM, Gonzales A, Law WA (1982) Amphetamine, haloperidol, and experience interact to affect rate of recovery after motor cortex injury. Science 217: 855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fields RW (1987) Electromyographically triggered electric muscle stimulation for chronic hemiplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 68: 407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fields WS, Lemak NA, Frankoski RF, Hardy RJ (1978) Controlled trial of aspirin in cerebral ischemia II. Surgical group. Stroke 9: 309Google Scholar
  37. Fields WS, Lemak NA, Frankoski RF, Hardy RJ (1979) Controlled trial of aspirin in cerebral ischemia. Stroke 8: 301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fisher CM (1961) Anticoagulant therapy in cerebral thrombosis and cerebral embolism. A National Cooperative Study. Neurology 11: 119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fleet WS, Valenstein E, Watson RT, Heilman KM (1987) Dopamine agonist therapy for neglect in humans. Neurology 37: 1765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frei A, Cottier C, Wunderlich P, Ludin E (1987) Glycerol and dextran combined in therapy of acute stroke. Stroke 18: 373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Friedman GD, Wilson S, Mosier JM (1969) Transient ischemic attacks in a community. JAMA 210: 1428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fritz G, Werner I (1975) The effect of glycerol infusion in acute cerebral infarction. Acta Med Scand 198: 287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Furlan AS, Cavalier SJ, Hobbs RE (1982) Hemorrhage and anticoagulation after non-septic embolic brain infarction. Neurology 32: 280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gallhofer G, Ladurner G, Lechner H (1979) Prognosis of prophylactic anticoagulant treatment in ischemic stroke. Eur Neurol 18: 145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gelmers HJ (1975) Effect of glycerol treatment on the natural history of acute cerebral infarction. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 78: 277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gelmers HJ (1980) Effects of low-dose subcutaneous heparin on the occurence of deep vein trombosis in patients with ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand 61: 313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gelmers HJ (1982) Effect of nimodipine on postischemic cerebrovascular activity, as revealed by measuring regional cerebral blood flow. Acta Neurochir 63: 283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gelmers HJ (1984) The effects of nimodipine on the clinical course of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand 69: 232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gelmers HJ, Gorter K, de Weerdt CJ, Wiezer JHA (1988) A controlled trial of nimodipine in acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 318: 203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gilroy J, Barnhart MI, Meyer JS (1969) Treatment of stroke with dextran 40. JAMA 210: 293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gilzanz V, Rebollar JL, Buencuerpo J, Chantres MT (1975) Controlled trial of glycerol versus dexamethason in the treatment of cerebral oedema in acute cerebral infarction. Lancet I: 1049Google Scholar
  52. Gottstein U, Held K (1969) Effekt der Hämodilution nach intravenöser Infusion von niedermolekularen Dextranen auf die Hirnzirkulation des Menschen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 94: 522–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gryglewski RJ, Nowak S, Kosta-Trabka E, Kusmiderski J, Dembinska-Kiec A, Bieron K, Basita M, Blasczyk B (1983) Treatment of ischemic stroke with prostacyclin. Stroke 14: 197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guiraud-Chaumeil B, Rascol A, David J, Boneu B, Clanet M, Bierme R (1982) Prevention des recidives des accidents vascualaires cerebraux ischemiques par les anti-agregants plaquettaires. Resultats d’un essai therapeutique controle de 3 ans. Rev Neurol (Paris) 138: 367Google Scholar
  55. Hacke W, Zeumer H, Ferbert A, Brückmann H, del Zoppo GJ (1988) Intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy improves outcome in patients with acute vertebobasilar occlusive disease. Stroke 19: 1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hakim AM, Pokrupa RP, Wolfe LS (1984) Preliminary report on the effectiveness of prostacyclin in stroke. Can J Neurol Sci 11: 409Google Scholar
  57. Harrison MJG, Pollock S, Kendell BE, Marshall J (1981) Effect of haematocrit on carotid stenosis and cerebral infarction. Lancet II: 114Google Scholar
  58. Hennerici M, Rautenberg W, Mohr S (1982) Stroke risk from symptomless extracranial arterial disease. Lancet II: 1180Google Scholar
  59. Hennerici M, Hülsbömer HB, Hefter H, Lammerts D, Rautenberg W (1987) Natural history of asymptomatic extracranial artery disease. Brain 101: 777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hennerici M, Klemm C, Rautenberg W (1988) The subclavian steal phenomenon: a common vascular disorder with rare neurologic deficits. Neurology 38: 669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Heinemann AW, Roth EJ, Cichowski K, Betts HB (1987) Multivariate analysis of improvement and outcome following stroke rehabilitation. Arch Neurol 44: 1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Heller A, Wade DT, Wood VA (1987) Arm function after stroke: Measurement and recovery over the first three months. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50: 714Google Scholar
  63. Hömberg V (1988) Rehabilitation in spastic syndromes — non pharmacological ways of treatment. In: Emre M (ed) Spasticity today (In press)Google Scholar
  64. Hömberg V, Halsband U (1988) Die Problematik der Interpretation von Trainingsverläufen bei computergestützter kognitiver Rehabilitation. In: Computer helfen heilen. ( Im Druck )Google Scholar
  65. Hill AB, Marshall J, Shaw DA (1962) Cerebrovascular disease: Trial of long-term anticoagulant theerapy. Br Med J II: 1003Google Scholar
  66. Howell DA, Talow SFT, Feldman S (1964) Observations on anticoagulant therapy in thromboembolic disease of the brain. Can Med Assoc 90: 611Google Scholar
  67. Hsu CY, Faught RE, Furlan AJ et al. (1987) Intravenous prostacyclin in acute nonhemorrhagic stroke: A placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Stroke 18: 352Google Scholar
  68. Hsu CY, Norris JW, Hogan EL et al. (1988) Pentoxifylline in acute nonhemorrhagic stroke. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Stroke 19: 716Google Scholar
  69. Inglis J, Donald MW, Monga TN, Sproule M, Young MJ (1984) Electromyographic biofeedback and physical therapy of the hemiplegic upper limb. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 65: 755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Italian Acute Stroke Study Group (1988) Haemodilution in acute stroke: Results of the Italian haemodilution trial. Lancet I: 318Google Scholar
  71. Jabaily J, Davis JN (1984) Naloxone administration to patients with acute stroke. Stroke 15: 36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Joynt RI, Gash DM (1987) Neural transplants: Are we ready? Ann Neurol 22: 455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kaste M, Fogelolm R, Waltimo R (1976) Combined dexamethasone and low-molecular-weight dextran in acute brain infarction: Double blind-study. Br Med J II: 1409Google Scholar
  74. Koller RL (1982) Recurrent embolic cerebral infarction and anticoagulation. Neurology 32: 283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Krämer G, Busse O, Warlow C, Hopf HC (1986) Aktueller Stand gefäßchirurgischer Eingriffe bei zerebrovaskulären Erkrankungen. 2. Karotis-Thrombendarterektomie. Akt Neurol 13: 188Google Scholar
  76. Lammer J, Asher PW, Choy DSJ (1986) Transfemorale Katheter-Laser-Thrombendarterektomie ( TEA) der Arteria carotis. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 111: 607Google Scholar
  77. Lance JW, Adams RD (1963) The syndrome of intention or action myoclonus as a sequel to hypoxic encephalopathy. Bralin 86: 111Google Scholar
  78. Larsson O, Marinovich N, Barber K (1976) Double-blind trial of glycerol therapy in early stroke. Lancet I: 832Google Scholar
  79. Lodder J, Lugt PJM van der (1983) Evaluation of the risk of immediate anticoagulant treatment in patients with embolic stroke of cardiac origin. Stroke 14: 42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lodder J, Dennis MS, Raak L van, Jones LN, Warlow CP (1988) Cooperative study on the value of long term anticoagulation in patients with stroke and non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation. Br Med J I: 1435Google Scholar
  81. Logigian MK, Samuels MA, Falconer J (1983) Clinical exercise trial for stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 64: 364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Marshall J, Shaw DA (1960) Anticoagulant therapy in acute cerebrovascular accident. A controlled trial. Lancet I: 995Google Scholar
  83. Martin JF, Handy N, Nicholl J (1985) Double-blind controlled trial of prostacyclin in cerebral infarction. Stroke 16: 386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Martinez-Vila E, Martinez-Lage JM, Guillen Llera F, Villanueva Eusa JA, Matias Guiu J, Bigorra Llosas J (1989) Nimodipine in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke (in preparation)Google Scholar
  85. Mathew NT, Rivera VM, Meyer JS, Charney JZ, Hartmann A (1972) Double-blind evaluation.of glycerol therapy in acute cerebral infarction. Lancet II: 1327Google Scholar
  86. Matthews WB, Oxbury JM, Grainger KM, Grenhall RC (1976) A blind controlled trial of dextran-40 in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Brain 99: 193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mauritz KH (1986) Restoration of posture and gait by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS). In: Bles W, Brandt T (eds) Disorders of positure and gait. Elsevier, Amsterdam p. 367Google Scholar
  88. McDowell F, McDevitt E (1965) Treatment of the completed stroke with long-term anticoagulant: Six and one-half year’s experience In: Millikan CH, Siekert RG, Whisnant JP (eds) Cerebral vascular diseases. Fourth Princeton Conference. Grune & Stratton, New York, p 185Google Scholar
  89. McLean A, Stanton KM, Cardenas DD, Bergerud DB (1987) Memory training combined with the use of oral physostigmine. Brain Injury 1: 145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Miller VT, Coull BM, Yatsu FM, Shah AB, Beamer NB (1984) Prostacyclin infusion in acute cerebral infarction. Neurology 34: 1431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Millikan CH (1965) Anticoagulant therapy in cerebrovascular disease In: Millikan CH, Siekert RG, Whisnant JP (eds) Cerebral vasular diseases. Fourth Princeton Conference. Grune & Stratton, New York, p 183Google Scholar
  92. Nenci GG, Gresele P, Taramelli M, Agnelli G, Signorini E (1983) Thrombolytic therapy for thromboembolism of vertebrobasilar artery. Angiology 34: 561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Norris JW (1976) Steroid therapy in acute cerebral infarction. Arch Neurol 33: 69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Norris JW, Hachinski VC (1986) High dose steroid treatment in cerebral infarction. Br Med J 292: 21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Norris JW, Hachinski VC, Meyers MG, Callow J, Wong T, Moore RW (1979) Serum cardiac enzymes in stroke. Stroke 10: 548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Oleson J, Paulson OB (1971) The effect of intra-arterial papaverine on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with stroke or intracranial tumor. Stroke 2: 148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ollson JE, Muller R, Berneli S (1976) Long-term anticoagulant therapy for TIAs and minor strokes with minimum residuum. Stroke 7: 444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Palmer FB, Shapiro BK, Wachtel RC et al. (1986) The effects of physical therapy on cerebral palsy. N Engl J Med 318: 803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Patten BM, Mendell J, Bruun B, Curtin W, Carter S (1972) Double-blind study of the effects of dexamethasone on acute stroke. Neurology 22: 377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pearce JM, Gubbay SS, Walton JN (1965) Long-term anticoagulant therapy in transient cerebral ischaemic attacks. Lancet I: 6Google Scholar
  101. Poeck K, Huber W, Willmes K (1988) Outcome of intensive language therapy in aphasia. Brain (in press)Google Scholar
  102. Rass D, Behrends U, Hömberg V (1988) Autorensystem mit Video-Interface: Erstellung kognitiven Trainingsmaterials. In: Computer helfen heilen. ( Im Druck )Google Scholar
  103. Reding MJ, Ortho LA, Winter SW, Fortuna IM, Di Ponte P, McDowell FH (1986) Antidepressant therapy after stroke. A double blind trial. Arch Neurol 43: 763Google Scholar
  104. Reuther R, Dorndorf W (1978) Aspirin in patients with cerebral ischemia and normal angiograms or non surgical lesions. Results of a double blind trial. In: Breddin K, Dorndorf W, Loew D, Marx R (eds) Acetylsalicylic acid in cerebral ischemia and coronary heart disease. Schattauer, Stuttgart, p 97Google Scholar
  105. Ribeiro LGT, Brandon TA, Hopkins DG, Reduto LA, Taylor AA, Miller RR (1981) Prostacyclin in experimental myocardial ischemia: Effects on hemodynamics, regional myocardial blood flow, infarct size and mortality. Am J Cardiol 47: 835Google Scholar
  106. Roederer GO, Langlois YE, Jager KA et al. (1984) T’he natural history of carotid arterial disease in asymptomatic patients with cervical bruits. Stroke 15: 605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rubinstein MK (1965) The influence of adrenocortical steroids on severe cerebrovascular accidents. J Nery Ment Dis 141: 291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sage JL, Uitert RL van (1983) Risk of recurrent stroke with atrial fibrillation; differences between rheumatic and arteriosclerotic heart disease. Stroke 14: 42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Santamaria J, Graus F, Peres J (1983) Cerebral embolism and anticoagulation. Neurology 33: 1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Santanbrogio S, Martinotti R, Sardella F, Porro F, Randazzo A (1978) Is there a real treatment of stroke? Clinical and statistical comparison of different treatments in 300 patients. Stroke 9: 130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Scandinavian Stroke Study Group (1987) Multicenter trial of hemodilution in acute ischemic stroke. I. Results in the total patient population. Stroke 18: 691Google Scholar
  112. Siekert RG, Whisnant JP, Millikan CH (1963) Surgical and anticoagulant therapy of occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Ann Intern Med 58: 637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sloan MA (1987) Thrombolysis and stroke: Past and future. Arch Neurol 44: 748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sorensen PS, Pedersen H, Marquardsen Jet al. (1983) Acetylsalicylic acid in the prevention of stroke in patients with reversible cerebral ischemia. Stroke 14: 5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sparks R, Helm N, Albert M (1974) Aphasia rehabilitation resulting from melodic intonation therapy. Cortex 10: 303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Spudis EV, de La Torre E, Pikula L (1973) Management of completed strokes with dextran-40. A comunity hospital failure. Stroke 4: 895Google Scholar
  117. Steen PA, Gisvold SE, Milde JH, Newberg L, Scheithauer BW, Lanier WL, Michenfelder J (1985) Nimodipine improves outcome when given after complete cerebral ischemia in primates. Anesthesiology 62: 406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Steinhoff C, Hömberg V (1988) Interaktion Patient Computer: Versuch einer Einstellungsmessung. In: Computer helfen heilen. ( Im Druck )Google Scholar
  119. Strand T, Apslund K, Eriksson S, Hagg E, Lithner F, Wester PO (1984) A randomized controlled trial of hemodilution therapy in acute cerebral stroke. Stroke 15: 980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Swedish Cooperative Study (1987) High dose acetylsalicyl acid after cerebral infarction. Stroke 18: 325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Szekely P (1964) Systemic embolism and anticoagulant prophylaxis in rheumatic heart disease. Br Med J I: 1209Google Scholar
  122. Terent A, Anderson B (1980) The outcome of patients with transient ischemic attacks and stroke treated with anticoagulants. Acta Med Scand 208: 359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Toole JF, Janeway R, Choi K (1975) Transient ischemic attacks due to atherosclerosis. A prospective study in 160 patients. Arch Neurol 32: 5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. UK-TIA Study Group (1988) United Kingdom transient ischaemic attack (UK-TIA) aspirin trial. Br Med J 296: 316Google Scholar
  125. Wallace JD, Levy LL (1980) Blood pressure after stroke. JAMA 246: 2177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wilson BA (1987) Rehabilitation of memory. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. Wise G, Sutter R, Burkholder J (1972) The treatment of brain ischemia with vasopressor drugs. Stroke 3: 135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zeumer H, Hacke W, Kolinann HL, Poeck K (1982) Lokale Fibrinolysetherapie bei BasilarisThrombose. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 107: 728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zeumer H (1985) Survey of progress: Vascular recanalizing techniques in interventional neuroradiology. J Neurol 231: 287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zihl J, Cramon D von (1985) Visual field recovery from scotoma in patients with postgeniculate damage. Brain 108: 335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herman-J. Gelmers
    • 1
  • Günter Krämer
    • 2
  • Werner Hacke
    • 3
  • Michael Hennerici
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyStreekziekenhuisAlmeloNiederlande
  2. 2.Neurologische KlinikUniversitätskliniken MainzMainz 1Deutschland
  3. 3.Neurologische KlinikKlinikum der Universität HeidelbergHeidelberg 1Deutschland
  4. 4.Neurologische KlinikMed. Einrichtungen der Universität DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Deutschland

Personalised recommendations