Intermittent Water Supply and Domestic Water Quality in the Middle East

  • Fuad Hashwa
  • Sima Tokajian


Many countries in the Middle East suffer from chronic water shortage and as a result supplies generally operate on an intermittent basis, leaving the distribution system un-pressurized for long periods of time. Operating a distribution system in a non-continuous manner leads to conditions that favor the deterioration of the water quality, due mainly to infiltration, regrowth within pipes and the detachment of the bacterial biofilm following variations in pressure and velocity. During no-flow periods individual households store water in roof top tanks for several days, thus providing further opportunity for microbial regrowth and deterioration of the water quality, contributing eventually to incidences with opportunistic pathogens and thus increased public health related problems.


Distribution System Storage Tank Water Quality Deterioration Heterotrophic Plate Count Drinking Water Distribution System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fuad Hashwa
    • 1
  • Sima Tokajian
    • 1
  1. 1.Microbiology & Biotechnology LebaneseAmerican UniversityByblosLebanon

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