Wafer Bonding pp 327-357 | Cite as

Wafer Direct Bonding for High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diodes and Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

  • A. Plößl
Part of the Springer Series in MATERIALS SCIENCE book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 75)


Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor devices that convert electrical energy into optical radiation by electroluminescence. Although semiconductor electroluminescence was described almost a century ago [1], only in the 1960s did it start to be investigated thoroughly and industrially manufactured LEDs become available. For most of the time, their use was confined to indicator lamps in electronic consumer appliances. When in the 1990s the organo-metallic growth [2,3] of high-quality A1GaInP and GaInN layers became viable, this materials science breakthrough opened up a whole range of new applications for the LED. With the advent of these high-brightness LEDs the entire visible emission spectrum is being covered: A1GaInP ranging from red to yellow, GaInN from green to violet. Hence white light can be generated, be it through a combination of red green and blue LEDs or through the partial conversion of blue or violet light by combination with a phosphor, and this gives LEDs access to the emerging field of semiconductor illumination and lighting.


Epitaxial Layer GaAs Substrate Distribute Bragg Reflector Isothermal Solidification Wafer Bonding 
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