Wafer Bonding pp 315-326 | Cite as

Three-Dimensional Photonic Bandgap Crystals by Wafer Bonding Approach

Part of the Springer Series in MATERIALS SCIENCE book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 75)


Much interest has been drawn to photonic crystals [1–3] in which the refractive index changes periodically. A photonic band gap is formed in the crystals, and the propagation of electromagnetic waves is prohibited for all wave vectors. Various important scientific and engineering applications such as control of spontaneous emission, zero-threshold lasing, very sharp bending of light, trapping of photons, and so on, are expected to be realized by utilizing the photonic bandgap and the artificially introduced defect and/or light-emitters. To develop these potential applications of photonic crystals as much as possible, the satisfaction of the following requirements is considered one of the most important issues: (i) a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal with a complete photonic bandgap should be constructed in the optical wavelength region, (ii) introduction of artificial defects into the crystal should be possible at an arbitrary position, (iii) introduction of an efficient light-emitting element also should be possible, and (iv) the electronically conductive crystal is preferable for actual device applications. Although various important approaches such as a self-assembled colloidal crystal [4], a GaAs based three-axis dry-etching crystal [5], and a silicon based layer-by-layer crystal [6, 7] have been proposed and developed to construct the 3D photonic crystals, it is considered difficult for these methods to satisfy the above requirements simultaneously. For example, in the case of a photonic crystal based on silicon with indirect band gap, it is difficult to apply it to an active photonic device.


Photonic Crystal Photonic Crystal Structure Artificial Defect Parallel Stripe Stripe Period 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

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  • S. Noda

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