Spezifische Phobien

  • Lars-Göran Öst

Zusammenfassung

Die spezifischen Phobien sind seit den 6oer Jahren in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur als eigenständiges Krankheitsbild anerkannt. Marks (1969) beschrieb in seinem klassischen Lehrbuch vier Kategorien von Phobien: Agoraphobie, Sozialphobie, Tierphobien und verschiedene spezifische Phobien. Die letzten beiden Kategorien wurden im DSM-III (APA, 1980) und DSM-III-R (APA, 1987) zu einer Kategorie, den einfachen Phobien, zusammengefaßt. Da allerdings das Wort „einfach“ zu dem falschen Eindruck führen könnte, daß diese Phobien definitionsgemäß einfach zu behandeln seien, wurde die Bezeichnung im DSM-IV (APA, 1994) in „spezifische“ Phobie geändert. Damit wird hervorgehoben, daß Menschen, die an dieser Angststörung leiden, Angst vor einem klar umschriebenen Objekt oder einer Situation haben, im Gegensatz zur Agoraphobie oder zur Sozialphobie, bei denen eine Vielzahl verschiedener Situationen gefürchtet und vermieden werden. Außerdem ist die Entwicklung von Folgeproblemen wie etwa einer sekundären Depression oder Medikamenten-/Alkoholabhängigkeit bei den spezifischen Phobien bedeutend seltener als bei Agoraphobie und Sozialphobie.

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  • Lars-Göran Öst

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