Multiple Models — Fixed, Switching, Interacting

  • Brigitte Gundlich
  • Peter Teunissen
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 127)


In dynamic models the dynamic and the observation equations are based on a known system model. The multiple model approach introduces uncertainties about the system model by a set of possible system models. In the multiple model approach for fixed models the true system does not change during the whole observation process, wheareas in the approach for switching models a jump from one model to another is allowed. In the later case the state estimation usually has to be approximated, e.g. by so-called interacting multiple models. The multiple model approach for fixed, switching and interacting models are presented and their application for GNSS ambiguity resolution is discussed, but open questions still remain.


Bayesian statistics ambiguity resolution model uncertainty recursive estimation multiple models interacting multiple models 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brigitte Gundlich
    • 1
  • Peter Teunissen
    • 1
  1. 1.Mathematical Geodesy and PositioningTU DelftDelftThe Netherlands

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