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Uroonkologie pp 401-431 | Cite as

Radioonkologie

Zusammenfassung

Die später nach ihm genannten Strahlen entdeckte Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen am 8. November 1895 in Würzburg. Sie wurden in einer elektrischen Entladungsröhre (Röntgenröhre) erzeugt. Bis in die 60er Jahre stellte diese die wesentliche Möglichkeit dar, ionisierende Strahlen zu erzeugen und für die medizinisch-therapeutische Anwendung nutzbar zu machen. Ihre Begrenzung lag in der geringen Eindringtiefe der Strahlen, deren Dosismaximum in der Haut auftritt und die zur Tiefe rasch an Dosis verlieren. Heute werden die klassischen Röntgenstrahlen („Orthovolt-Röntgentherapie“) nur noch für auf und in der Haut gelegene Tumoren eingesetzt. Die während des letzten Krieges entwickelten Kernreaktoren schufen in den 50er Jahren die Möglichkeit, künstliche radioaktive Isotope in größeren Mengen herzustellen. Der Prototyp der in der Radio Onkologie verwendeten Radionuklide war das Kobalt-60, das die Röntgentiefentherapie ablöste. Mit den Telekobaltbestrahlungsgeräten ist es möglich, eine größere Dosis in der Tiefe des Körpers zu erzielen und die Haut durch den Aufbaueffekt zu schonen. Telekobaltgeräte bieten heute jedoch nicht mehr die optimalen Voraussetzungen für eine hochdosierte Strahlentherapie; sie werden bevorzugt wohnortnah und für palliative Indikationen eingesetzt.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Sack

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