Piezo-electric Methods of Generation and Reception of Ultrasonic Waves

  • Josef Krautkrämer
  • Herbert Krautkrämer

Abstract

So far we have discussed the propagation and behaviour of ultrasonic waves in various materials without pre-supposing anything regarding their generation except that they are excited in the material concerned by the contact face of a radiator which oscillates with the desired wave-form and frequency. For detection a microphone has been assumed which likewise has a contact face and which is capable of measuring the sound pressure of an incident wave. Both devices are referred to in materials testing as a probe, or transducer, and where applicable as a transmitting probe or a receiving probe. We shall now discuss its mode of operation, which is based almost exlusively on the piezoelectric effect. Other methods for generating ultrasonics are discussed in Chapter 8.

Keywords

Titanium Quartz Zirconate Convection Lithium 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josef Krautkrämer
    • 1
  • Herbert Krautkrämer
    • 2
  1. 1.KölnGermany
  2. 2.Merten near KölnGermany

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