Advertisement

Trees IV pp 345-358 | Cite as

Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser Fir)

  • Carole H. Saravitz
  • Frank A. Blazich
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 35)

Abstract

The genus Abies Mill. (firs) is one of the largest in the Pinaceae (Krüssman 1985). Liu (1971) provided a taxonomic monograph of the genus Abies, and reported that it included two subgenera with 15 sections composed of 39 species, 27 varieties, and 9 hybrids. The genus was characterized morphologically by: (1) a peculiar resin commonly termed balsam, (2) buds on lateral branches often arranged hastately, (3) branchlets marked with circular disk-like leaf scars, (4) solitary male flowers (the genus is monecious) having short horizontal knob-like projections at the posterior portion of stamens and their anthers opening by a transverse slit, (5) erect and often variously colored cones with thin cone scales and bract scales separating from the cone axis upon seed maturity, and (6) seeds having resin vescicles infolded by the lower part of their thin wings. The wood consists only of tracheids and rays without normal resin canals. The tracheids have bordered, taxodioid pits.

Keywords

Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Immature Embryo Seed Orchard Stem Cutting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adkins CR, Hinesley LE, Blazich FA (1984) Role of stratification, temperature and light in Fraser fir germination. Can J For Res 14: 88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amerson HV, Frampton Jr LJ, McKeand SE, Mott RL, Weir RJ (1985) Loblolly pine tissue culture: laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies. In: Henke RR, Hughes KW, Constantin MJ, Hollander A (eds) Tissue culture in forestry and agriculture. Plenum Press, New York, pp 271–288Google Scholar
  3. Blazich FA, Hinesley LE (1984) Low temperature germination of Fraser fir seed. Can J For Res 14: 948–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blazich FA, Hinesley LE (1994) Propagation of Fraser fir. J Environ Hortic 12: 112–117Google Scholar
  5. Bonga JM (1977) Organogenesis in in vitro cultures of embryonic shoots of Abies balsamea (balsam fir). In Vitro 13: 41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dull CW, Ward JD, Brown HD, Ryan GW, Clerke WH, Uhler RJ (1988) Evaluation of spruce and fir mortality in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. US Dep Agric For Serv, Southern Region, Protection Rpt R8-PR 13Google Scholar
  7. Franklin JF (1974) Abies Mill. fir. In: Schopmeyer CS (Tech Coordinator) Seeds of woody plants in the United States. US Dep Agric For Sery Agric Handb 450, pp 168–183Google Scholar
  8. Garlo AS (1982) Vegetative propagation of Fraser fir seed orchard trees by rooted cuttings and grafting. MS Thesis, NC State Univ, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  9. Guevin TG, Micah V, Kirby EG (1992) Preliminary observations on cytokinin effects on in vitro growth of zygotic embryos of Abiesfraseri. Proc 6th Meet Int Conifer Biotechnol Working Group. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, April 23–28, 1992Google Scholar
  10. Guevin TG, Micah V, Kirby EG (1994) Somatic embryogenesis in cultured mature zygotic embryos of Abies balsamea. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 37: 205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heit CE (1968) Thirty-five years of testing tree and shrub seed. J For 66: 623–634Google Scholar
  12. Henry PH, Blazich FA (1990) Seed germination of Fraser fir: timing of irradiation and involvement of phytochrome. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 115: 231–234Google Scholar
  13. Hinesley LE, Blazich FA (1980) Vegetative propagation of Abies fraseri by stem cuttings. Hort Science 15: 96–97Google Scholar
  14. Int Seed Testing Assoc (1976) International rules for seed testing. Seed Sci Technol 4: 3–117Google Scholar
  15. Kirby EG, Schalk ME (1982) Surface structural analysis of cultured cotyledons of Douglas-fir. Can J Bot 60: 2729–2733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krüssman G (1985) Manual of cultivated conifers. Timber Press, Portland, OregonGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu T -S (1971) A monograph of the genus Abies. Dep For, Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, TaiwanGoogle Scholar
  18. Mott RL, Amerson HV (1981) A tissue culture process for the clonal production of loblolly pine plantlets. NC Agric Res Ser Tech Bull 271, 14 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Norgaard JV, Krogstrup P (1991) Cytokinin induced somatic embryogenesis from immature embryos of Abies nordmanniana Lk. Plant Cell Rep 9: 509–513Google Scholar
  20. Saravitz CH, Blazich FA, Amerson HV (1987) In vitro propagation of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri). Hort Science 22: 1068 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  21. Saravitz CH, Blazich FA, Amerson HV (1990) In vitro rooting of hypocotyl cuttings of Fraser fir. Hort Science 25: 1650–1651Google Scholar
  22. Saravitz CH, Blazich FA, Amerson HV (1991) In vitro propagation of Fraser fir from embryonic explants. Can J For Res 21: 404–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Saravitz CH, Blazich FA, Amerson HV (1993) Histology of in vitro adventitious bud development on cotyledons and hypocotyls of Abies fraseri. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 118: 163–167Google Scholar
  24. Schuller A, Reuther G, Geier T (1989) Somatic embryogenesis from seed explants of Abies alba. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 17: 53–58Google Scholar
  25. Sun Y -H (1993) Micropropagation and biolistic transformation of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) buds. MS Thesis, NC State Univ, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  26. Thorpe TA (1988) Physiology of bud induction in conifers in vitro. In: Hanover J, Keathy D (eds) Genetic manipulation of woody plants. Plenum Press, New York, pp 167–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. von Arnold S, Hakman I (1988) Plantlet regeneration in vitro via adventitious buds and somatic embryos in Norway spruce (Picea abies). In: Hanover J, Keathy D (eds) Genetic manipulation of woody plants. Plenum Press, New York, pp 199–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zygmont N, Schwarz OJ (1987) In vitro adventitious bud formation on cultured embryos of Abies fraseri. In Vitro 23: 49A (Abstr)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carole H. Saravitz
    • 1
  • Frank A. Blazich
    • 2
  1. 1.PhytotronNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Department of Horticultural ScienceNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations