Advertisement

Trees IV pp 172-193 | Cite as

Fraxinus excelsior L. (Common Ash)

  • N. Hammatt
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 35)

Abstract

Fraxinus (family Oleaceae) is a genus of approximately 50 species of hardwood trees and shrubs found in Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia and N. America. Although there are several Fraxinus spp. growing in Europe, only common ash (F. excelsior L.) is found in woodlands in the British Isles (Fig. la). Important North American species include F. americana (white ash) and F. pennsylvanica (green ash). Typically, common ash trees have pinnately compound leaves (Fig. lb) arranged in alternately opposite pairs. Apetalous flowers are borne in axillary panicles, and each consists of a single ovary containing four ovules, of which only one usually develops into a seed. The fruits develop into samaras which persist in clusters (Fig. 1c) on the tree often long after leaf-fall, and are eventually dispersed by wind.

Keywords

Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Adventitious Shoot Indole Butyric Acid Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anzai H, Yoneyama K, Yamaguchi I (1989) Transgenic tobacco resistant to a bacterial disease by the detoxifaction of a pathogenic toxin. Mol Gen Genet 219: 492–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arber A (1950) The natural philosophy of plant form. Cambridge Univ. Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Arrillaga I, Lerma V, Segura J (1992) Micropropagation ofjuvenile and adult flowering ash. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 117: 346–350Google Scholar
  4. Bajaj YPS (1995) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 30. Somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seed I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Baleriola-Lucas C, Mullins MG (1984) Micropropagation of two French prune cultivars. Agronomie 4: 473–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bates S, Preece JE, Navarrete NE, Van Sambeek JW, Gaffney GR (1992) Thidiazuron stimulates shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in white ash (Fraxinus americana L.). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 31: 21–29Google Scholar
  7. Brazier JD (1990) The timbers of farm woodland trees. For Comm Bull 91, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Browne R, Hicks G (1983) Development in vitro of white ash buds. Ann Bot 52: 101–104Google Scholar
  9. Chalupa V (1983) Micropropagation of conifer and broadleaved forest trees. Commun Inst For Czech 13: 7–39Google Scholar
  10. Chalupa V (1990) Micropropagation of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Biol Plant 32: 332–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Douds DD, Chaney WR (1986) The effect of high nutrient addition upon seasonal patterns of mycorrhizal development, host growth, and root phosphorus and carbohydrate content in Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. New Phytol 103: 91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Driver JA, Kuniyuki AH (1984) In vitro propagation of paradox walnut rootstock. HortScience 19: 507–509Google Scholar
  13. Einset JW, Alexander JH (1985) Multiplication of Syringa species and cultivars in tissue culture. Comb Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 3: 628–636Google Scholar
  14. Hammatt N (1993) Micropropagation of fastigiate bird cherry (Prunus padus L.) and adventitious shoot formation from leaves. J Hortic Sci 68: 975–981Google Scholar
  15. Hammatt N (1994a) Shoot initiation in the leaflet axils of compound leaves of micropropagated shoots of juvenile and mature common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). J Exp Bot 45: 871–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hammatt N (1994b) Promotion by phloroglucinol of adventitious root formation in micropropagated shoots of adult wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). Plant Growth Reg 14: 127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hammatt N, Ridout MS (1992) Micropropagation of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 31: 67–74Google Scholar
  18. Hammatt N, Grant NJ (1993) Apparent rejuvenation of mature wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) during micropropagation. J Plant Physiol 141: 341–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heiman PJ, Preece JE (1983) Aseptic micropropagation of Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. and Fraxinus americana L. utilizing shoot tip explants. HortScience 18: 617 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  20. Huetteman CA, Preece JE (1993) Thiadiazuron: a potent cytokinin for woody plant tissue culture. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 33: 105–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hunter CS (1979) In vitro culture of Cinchona ledgeriana L. J Hortic Sci 54: 111–114Google Scholar
  22. Janse JD (1982) The bacterial disease of ash (Fraxinus excelsior), caused by Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastoni pv. fraxini. III. Pathogenesis. Eur J For Pathol 12: 218–231Google Scholar
  23. Kerr G, Evans J (1993) Growing broadleaves for timber. For Comm Handbook 9, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Leforestier F, Gras M, Joseph C (1990) Micropropagation of Fraxinus excelsior. Abstracts VIIth Int Cong Plant Tissue Cell Culture, Amsterdam, p 112Google Scholar
  25. Leforestier F, Courtois-Gras M, Joseph C (1991) Etude comparative de la micropropagation de quelques éspèces de Fraxinus. Acta Hortic 289: 215 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  26. Lerner DR, Raikhel NV (1992) The gene for stinging nettle lectin (Urtica dioica agglutinin) encodes both a lectin and a chitinase. J Biol Chem 267: 11085–11091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lloyd G, McCown B (1980) Commercially-feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot tip culture. Comb Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 30: 421–427Google Scholar
  28. Lovato PE, Hammatt N, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S (1994) Mycorrhization of micropropagated mature wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) and common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L). Agric Sci Finl 3: 297–302Google Scholar
  29. Martin GB, Brommonschenkel SH, Chunwongse J, Frary A, Ganal MW, Spivey R, Wu T, Earle ED, Tanksley SD (1993) Map-based cloning of a protein kinase gene conferring disease resistance in tomato. Science 262: 1432–1436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Méndez J, Gesto MDV, Vázquez A, Vieitez E (1968) Growth substances isolated from woody cuttings of Alnus glutinosa Medic. and Fraxinus excelsior L. Phytochemistry 7: 575–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Navarrete NE, Van Sambeek JW, Preece JE, Gaffney GR (1989) Improved micropropagation of white ash Fraxinus americana L. In: Rink G, Budelsky CA (eds) Proc 7th Central Hardwood Conf, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, General Technical Report No. NC-132 of the North Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, pp 146–149Google Scholar
  33. Passey AJ, Jones OP (1993) Shoot proliferation and rooting in vitro of Theobroma cacao L. type Amelonado. J Hortic Sci 58: 589–592Google Scholar
  34. Perez-Parron MA, Gonzalez-Benito ME, Perez C (1994) Micropropagation of Fraxinus angustifolia from mature and juvenile plant material. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 37: 297–302Google Scholar
  35. Ponder F (1984) Growth and mycorrhizal development of potted white ash and black walnut fertilized by two methods. Can J Bot 62: 509–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Preece JE, Christ PH, Ensenberger L, Zhao J (1987) Micropropagation of ash (Fraxinus). Comb Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 37: 366–372Google Scholar
  37. Preece JE, Zhao J, Kung FH (1989) Callus production and somatic embryogenesis from white ash. HortScience 24: 377–380Google Scholar
  38. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1980) Statistical methods, 6th edn. Iowa State Univ Press, IowaGoogle Scholar
  39. Sriskandarajah S, Mullins MG, Nair Y (1982) Induction of adventitious rooting in vitro with difficult to propagate cultivars of apple. Plant Sci Lett 24: 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Styer DJ (1985) Bioreactor technology for plant propagation. In: Henke RR, Hughes KW, Constantin MJ, Hollander A (eds) Tissue culture in forestry and agriculture. Plenum New York, pp 117–130Google Scholar
  41. Suszka B (1989) Physiological aspects of seed conservation. Ann Sci For 46 (Suppl): 72s-84sCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tabrett AM, Hammatt N (1992) Regeneration of shoots from embryo hypocotyls of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Plant Cell Rep 11: 514–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tipton JL (1990) Vegetative propagation of Mexican redbud, larchleaf goldenweed, littleleaf ash, and evergreen sumac. HortScience 25: 196–198Google Scholar
  44. Webster CA, Jones OP (1989) Micropropagation of the apple rootstock M. 9: effect of sustained subculture on apparent rejuvenation in vitro. J Hortic Sci 64: 421–428Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Hammatt
    • 1
  1. 1.Horticulture Research InternationalWellesbourne WarwickUK

Personalised recommendations