Nachweis von erythrozytären Antigenen und Antikörpern

  • A. Salama
  • C. Mueller-Eckhardt

Zusammenfassung

Blutgruppenmerkmale sind Antigene, die zur Bildung von spezifischen Antikörpern führen können. Diese gehören vorwiegend zu den Immunglobulinen der Klassen IgG und/oder IgM, selten zu IgA. Die für die Blutgruppenserologie wichtigsten Antigen-Antikörper-reaktionen sind die Hämagglutination und die Immunhämolyse (durch Komplementaktivierung bedingte Zytolyse). Hämagglutination (Verklumpung der Erythrozyten) entsteht durch eine spezifische Bindung von Antikörpern an die Zellen. Diese Bindung ist nicht kovalent und deshalb grundsätzlich reversibel. Durch einfache physikalische Maßnahmen (z. B. Ansäuerung, Erhitzung) läßt sich ein spezifischer Antikörper wieder von seiner Bindungsstelle trennen (eluieren).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Bhakdi S, Muhly M, Roth M (1983) Isolation of specific antibodies to complement components. Methods Enzymol 93:409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dacie JV (1962) The haemolytic anaemias (Part II), 2nd Edition. Grune & Stratton, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Engelfriet CP, Borne AEGKr von dem, Beckers TAP, Meulen FW van der, Fleer A, Roos D, Ou-wehand WH (1981) Immune destruction of red cells. In: Bell CA (ed) A seminar on immune-mediated cells destruction, American Association of Blood Banks, Chicago, p 93.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Engelfriet CP, Borne AEGKr von dem, Fleer A, Meulen FW van der, Ross D (1980) In vivo destruction of erythrocytes by complement binding antibodies. In: Sandler SG, Nusbacher J, Schau-field MS (ed) Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, Alan R Liss Inc., New York p 213.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Issit PD, Issit CH (1984) Applied blood group serology, 3rd Edition. Spectra Biologicals, Division of Becton, Dickinson & Co., Oxnard.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mollison PL (1983) Blood transfusion in clinical medicine, 7th Edition. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford pp. 187–190.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mueller-Eckhardt C, Mahn I (1983) The radio-immune antiglobulin test. In: McMillan R (ed) Immune cytopenias, Churchill Livingstone, New York pp. 68–86.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mueller-Eckhardt C, Salama A (1987) Immun-hämolytische Anämien durch Medikamente. Eine oft verkannte Nebenwirkung der Arzneitherapie. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 84:270–273.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nordhagen R (1979) HLA antigens on red blood cells. Two donors with extraordinarily strong reactivity. Vox Sang 37:209–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Petz LD, Garratty G (1983) Acquired immune hemolytic anemias, Churchill Livingstone, New York.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pirofsky B (1969) Autoimmunization and the autoimmune hemolytic anemias, Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roelcke D, Kreft H (1984) Characterization of various anti-Pr cold agglutinins. Transfusion 24:210–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roelcke D (1984) Kälteagglutinine: Humane monoklonale Antikörper gegen Glykokonjugat-Antigene von Zelloberflächen. Funkt Biol Med 3:106–127.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1982) Elimination of the prozone effect in the antiglobulin reaction by a simple modification. Vox Sang 42:157–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1984) Delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. Evidence for complement activation involving allogeneic and autologous red cells. Transfusion 24:188–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1985) The role of metabolite-specific antibodies in nomifensine-de-pendent immune hemolytic anemia. N Engl J Med 313:469–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1985) Binding of fluid phase C3b to nonsensitized bystander human red cells. A model for in vivo effects of complement activation on blood cells. Transfusion 25:528–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1986) Two types of nomifensine-induced immune haemolytic anaemias: drug-dependent sensitization and/or autoimmunization. Br J Haematol 64:613–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1987) Cianidanol and its metabolites bind tightly to red cells and are responsible for the production of auto- and/or drug-dependent antibodies against these cells. Br J Haematol 66:263–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1987) Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in childhood associated with non-complement binding IgM autoantibodies. Br J Haematol 65:67–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1987) On the pathomechanisms of sensitization and attachment of antibodies to red blood cells in drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia. Blood 69:1006–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt G, Strauss B-E, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1982) HLA-B7 on human red blood cells. Improved detection by a radioactive anti-IgG test. Tissue Antigens 19:183–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Salama A, Bhakdi S, Mueller-Eckhardt C, Kayser W (1983) Deposition of the terminal C5b-9 complement complex on erythrocytes by human red cell autoantibodies. Br J Haematol 55:161–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C, Kissel K, Pralle H, Seeger W (1984) Ex vivo antigen preparation for the serological detection of drug-dependent antibodies in immune haemolytic anaemias. Br J Haematol 58:525–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salama A, Pralle H, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1985) A new red blood cell cold autoantibody (anti-Me). Vox Sang 49:277–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Salama A, Mueller-Eckhardt C, Boschek B, Bhakdi S (1987) Hemolytic „efficiency” of C5b-9 complexes in drug-induced immune hemolysis: Role of cellular C5b-9 distribution. Br J Haematol 65:217–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Salama A, Bhakdi S, Mueller-Eckhardt C (1987) Evidence suggesting the occurence of C3-indepen-dent intravascular immune hemolysis. Transfusion 27:49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schubothe H (1958) Serologische und klinische Bedeutung der Autohämantikörper, S. Karger Verlag, Basel, New York.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shulman NR (1964) A mechanism of cell destruction in individuals sensitized to foreign antigens and its implications in auto-immunity. Ann Intern Med 60:506–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Salama
  • C. Mueller-Eckhardt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations