Das HLA-System

  • W. R. Mayr

Zusammenfassung

Das erste HLA Merkmal (HLA = human /eukocyte antigen, locus A) wurde 1958 von Dausset [20] beschrieben, wofür er 1980 den Medizin-Nobelpreis erhielt. Dieses Antigen, das vorerst als „Mac“ bezeichnet wurde und das dem heutigen HLA-A2 entspricht, konnte mit Hilfe von Antikörpern in den Sera poly-transfundierter Individuen definiert werden. Obwohl Dausset damals bereits vermutete, daß derartige Alloantigene für die Organtransplantation von Bedeutung sein könnten, wurden die nächsten HLA Merkmale, 4a und 4b (jetzt Bw4 und Bw6), erst 1963 von Van Rood und Van Leeuwen [62] beschrieben. Von diesem Zeitpunkt an entwickelte sich der Wissensstand um das HLA System in unglaublicher Weise durch eine einzigartige internationale Kooperation, die International Histocompatibility Workshops.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Alper CA, Raum D, Karp S, Awdeh ZL, Yunis EJ (1983) Serum complement „supergenes“ of the major histocompatibility complex in man (com-plotypes). Vox Sang 45:62–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnos DB, Batchelor R, Bodmer WF, Ceppellini R, Dausset J, Kissmeyer-Nielsen F, Morris P, Payne R, Rood JJv, Terasaki PI, Trnka Z, Walford R (1975) Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1975, Kissmeyer-Nielsen F (ed) Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp5–11.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Awdeh ZL, Raum D, Yunis EJ, Alper CA (1983) Extended HLA/complement allele haplotypes: evidence for T/t like complex in man. Proc Natl Acad. Sci USA 80:259–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bach FH, Hirschhorn K (1964) Lymphocyte interaction: a potential in vitro histocompatibility test, Science 143:815–817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Batchelor JR, Dodi IA, Woo P, Panayi GS, Ansell BM, Williams PL (1984) A family study of goldinduced nephropathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 375–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baur MP, Neugebauer M, Albert ED (1984) Reference tables of two-locus haplotype frequencies for all MHC marker loci. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 677–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baur MP, Neugebauer M, Albert ED (1984) Reference tables of three-locus haplotype frequencies and Delta values in Caucasians, Orientals and Negroids. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds), Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 756–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baur MP, Neugebauer M, Deppe H, Sigmund M, Luton T, Mayr WR, Albert ED (1984) Population analysis of deduced haplotypes from random families. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds), Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 333–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bell JI, Denny DW jr, McDevitt HO (1985) Structure and polymorphism of murine and human class II major hisocompatibility antigens. Immunol Rev 84: 51–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berah M, Hors J, Dausset J (1970) A study of HL-A antigens in human organs. Transplantation 9:185–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bodmer JG, Kennedy LJ, Aizawa M, Dawkins RL, Lepage V, Mazzilli MC, Richiardi P (1984) HLA-D region monoclonal antibodies. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 217–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bodmer W, Thomson G (1977) Population genetics and evolution of the HLA system. In: HLA and disease, Dausset J, Svejgaard A (eds) Munks-gaard, Copenhagen, pp 280–295.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bodmer WF, Bodmer JG (1978) Evolution and function of the HLA system. Brit Med Bull 34:309–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bodmer WF, Albert E, Bodmer JG, Dausset J, Kissmeyer-Nielsen F, Mayr W, Payne R, Rood JJv, Trnka Z, Walford R (1984) Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system 1984. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp4–8.Google Scholar
  15. 14a.
    Bodmer WF, Albert E, Bodmer JG, Dupont B, Mach B, Mayr WR, Sasazuki T, Schreuder I, Svejgaard A, Terasaki PI: Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 1987. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1987, B. Dupont (Hrsg.), Springer, New York, 1988 im Druck.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Brand DL, Ray JG jr, Hare DB, Kayhoe DE, Mc Clelland JD (1970) Preliminary trials toward standardization of leukocyte typing. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1970, Terasaki PI (ed) Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 357–367.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Campbell RD, Bentley DR (1985) The structure and genetics of the C2 and factor B genes. Immunol Rev 87:19–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    Carroll MC, Belt KT, Palsdottir A, Yu Y (1985) Molecular genetics of the fourth component of human complement and steroid 21-hydroxylase. Immunol Rev 87:39–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Charron DJ, Lotteau V, Turmel P (1984) Hybrid HLA-DQ antigens: molecular expression. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 539–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Cohen D, Paul P, Le Gall I, Marcadet A, Font MP, Cohen-Haguenauer O, Sayagh B, Cann H, Lalouel JM, Dausset J (1985) DNA polymorphism of HLA class I and class II regions. Immunol Rev 85:87–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Dausset J (1958) Iso-leuco-anticorps. Acta Hae-mat 20:156–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Dausset J, Svejgaard A (eds) (1977) HLA and disease. Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Dausset J, Colombani J, Colombani M, Legrand L, Feingold N (1968) Un nouvel antigene du systeme HL-A (Hu-1): l’antigène 15, allele possible des antigenes 1, 11, 12. Nouv Rev Franc Hemat 8:398–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Doherty PC, Zinkernagel RM (1975) A biological role for the major histocompatibility antigens. Lancet 1: 1406–1409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Fauchet R, Bodmer JG, Kennedy LJ, Mazzilli MC, Müller C, Raffoux C, Richiardi P (1984) HLA-ABC monoclonal antibodies, in: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Ferrara GB, Longo A, Tosi R, Biagini A, Men-nucci M, Carminate G (1981) HLA segregation of human T-cell subpopulation markers. Human Immunology 2:213–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Garlepp MJ, Dawkins RL (1984) D-penicillamine induced myasthenia gravis. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 384–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Gazit E, Terhorst C, Yunis EJ (1980) The human „T“ genetic region of the HLA linkage group is a polymorphism detected on lectin activated lymphocytes. Nature 284:275–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Giles RC, Capra JD (1985) Structure, function and genetics of human class II molecules. Adv Immunol 37:1–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Gorer PA, O’Gorman P (1956) The cytotoxic activity of isoantibodies in mice. Transplant Bull 3:142–143.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    Goulmy E (1982) HLA-A, B restriction of cytotoxic cells. In: HLA typing: methodology and clinical aspects, vol. II. Ferrone S, Solheim B G (eds), CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 105–122.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    Hadam MR, Dopfer R, Dammer G, Peter HH, Schlesier M, Müller C, Niethammer D (1984) Defective expression of HLA-D region determinants in children with congenital agammaglobulinemia and malabsorption: a new syndrome. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 645–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Harris JP, Tegoli J, Swanson J, Fisher N, Gavin J, Noades J (1967) A nebulous antibody responsible for cross-matching difficulties (Chido). Vox Sang 12:140–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Harris R, Zervas JD (1969) Reticulocyte HL-A antigens. Nature 221:1062–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Histocompatibility Testing 1965 (1965) Amos DB, Rood JJv (eds) Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    Histocompatibility Testing 1967 (1967) Curtoni ES, Mattiuz PL, Tosi RM (eds) Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Histocompatibility Testing 1970 (1970) Terasaki PI (eds) Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Histocompatibility Testing 1972 (1973) Dausset J, Colombani J (eds) Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    Histocompatibility Testing 1975 (1975) Kissmeyer-Nielsen F (ed) Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Histocompatibility Testing 1977 (1978) Bodmer WF, Batchelor JR, Bodmer JG, Festenstein H, Morris PJ (eds) Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Histocompatibility Testing 1980 (1980) Terasaki PI (ed) UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Histocompatibility Testing 1984 (1984) Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  43. 41a.
    Histocompatibility Testing 1987 (1984) Dupont B (ed) Springer, New York, im Druck.Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    Jordan BR, Caillol D, Damotte M, Delovitch T, Ferrier P, Kahn-Perles B, Kourilsky F, Layet C, Le Boutellier P, Lemonnier FA, Malissen M, N’Guyen C, Sire J, Sodoyer R, Strachan T, Trucy J (1985) HLA class I genes: from structure to expression, serology and function. Immunol Rev 84:73–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 43.
    Klein J (1982) Evolution and function of the major histocompatibility complex. In: Histocompatibility antigens, Parham P, Strominger J (eds) Chapman and Hall, London, pp 221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 44.
    Korman AJ, Boss JM, Spies T, Sorrentino R, Okada K, Strominger JL (1985) Genetic complexity and expression of human class II histocompatibility antigens. Immunol Rev. 85:45–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 45.
    Lamm LU, Olaisen B (1985) Report of the committee on the genetic constitution of chromosomes 5 and 6. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 40:128–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 46.
    Leeuwen Av, Festenstein H, Rood JJv (1982) Di-allelic alloantigenic systems on subsets of T cells. Human Immunology 4:109–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 47.
    Leeuwen Av, Termijtelen A, Shaw S, Rood JJv (1982) The recognition of a polymorphic monocyte antigen in HLA. Nature 298:565–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 48.
    Lisowska-Grospierre B, Charron DJ, Preval C de, Durandy A, Turmel P, Griscelli C, Mach B (1984) Defect of expression of MHC genes responsible for an abnormal HLA class I phenotype and the class II negative phenotype of lymphocytes from patients with combined immunodeficiency. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1984, Albert ED, Baur MP, Mayr WR (eds) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 650–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    Longster G, Giles CM (1976) A new antibody specificity, anti-Rga, reacting with a red cell and serum antigen. Vox Sang 30:175–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    Mayr WR (1986) The use of DNA polymorphisms demonstrated by means of the HLA system. Vox Sang 50:193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    Mayr WR (1986) Leukozytäre und thrombozytäre Merkmale. In: Die menschlichen Blutgruppen, 5. Aufl., Prokop O, Göhler W (Hrsg), Fischer, Jena, pp 145–170.Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Mayr WR, Waltz H, Wegener R (1981) Das HLA System in der Vaterschaftsserologie: praktische Erfahrungen bei 1130 Fällen. In: Biostatistischer Beweis der Vaterschaft — Festschrift für Erik Essen-Möller, Hummel K, Gerchow J (Hrsg), Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 177–191.Google Scholar
  55. 53.
    Möller E, Carlsson B, Wallin J (1985) Implication of structural class II gene polymorphism for the concept of serologic specificities. Immunol Rev 85, 107–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 54.
    Morton JA, Pickles MM, Sutton L (1969) The correlation of the Bga blood group with the HL-A7 leukocyte group: demonstration of antigenic sites on red cells and leukocytes. Vox Sang, pp 17, 536–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 55.
    Morton JA, Pickles MM, Sutton L, Skov F (1971) Identification of further antigens on red cells and lymphocytes. Association of Bgb with W17 (Te57) and Bgc with W28(Dal5, Ba*). Vox Sang 21:141–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 56.
    Natali PG, Segatto O, Ferrone S, Tosi R, Corte G (1984) Differental tissue distribution and ontogeny of DC-1 and HLA-DR antigens. Immunogentics 19:109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    O’Neill GJ, Yang SY, Tegoli J, Berger R, Dupont B (1978) Chido and Rodgers blood groups are distinct antigenic components of human complement C4. Nature 273:668–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 58.
    Orr HT (1982) The major histocompatibility complex: analysis at the protein and DNA levels. In: Histocompatibility antigens, Parham P, Strominger J (eds) Chapman and Hall, London, pp 1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 59.
    Perrault R, Högman C (1971) Automated red cell antibody analysis. A parallel study. II. Identification of serological specificities. Vox Sang 20:356–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Piazza A, Viganotti C (1973) Evolutionary trees and HL-A polymorphism. In: Histocompatibility Testing 1972, Dausset J, Colombani J (eds) Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 731–738.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    Rask L, Gustafsson K, Larhammar D, Rönne H, Peterson PA (1985) Generation of class II antigen polymorphism. Immunol Rev 84: 123–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 62.
    Rood JJv, Leeuwen Av (1963) Leukocyte grouping. A Method and its application. J Clin Invest 42: 1382–1390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Seaman MJ, Benson R, Jones MN, Morton JA, Pickles MM (1967) The reactions of the Bennett-Goodspeed group of antibodies with the Auto-Analyzer. Brit J Haemat 13: 464–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 64.
    Segall M, Cairns JS, Dahl CA, Curtsinger JM, Freeman S, Nelson PJ, Cohen O, Wu S, Nicklas JN, Noreen HJ, Linner KM, Saunders TL, Choong SA, Ohta N, Reinsmoen NL, Alter BJ, Bach FH (1985) DNA and protein studies of HLA class II molecules: their relationship to T cell recognition. Immunol Rev 85: 129–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Shackelford DA, Kaufman JF, Korman AJ, Stro-minger JL (1982) HLA-DR antigens: structure, separation of subpopulations, gene cloning and function. Immunol Rev 66: 133–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 66.
    Shaw S, Johnson AH, Shearer GM (1980) Evidence for a new segregant series of B cell antigens that are encoded in the HLA-D region and that stimulate secondary allogenic proliferation and cytotoxic responses. J Exp Med 152: 565–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Shaw S, DeMars R, Schlossman SF, Smith PL, Lampson LA, Nadler LM (1982) Serologic identification of the human secondary B cell (SB) antigens: correlation between function, genetics and structure. J Exp Med 156: 731–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 68.
    Sheehy MJ, Sondel PM, Bach ML, Wank R, Bach FH (1975) HLA-LD (lymphocyte defined) typing: a rapid assay with primed lymphocytes. Science 188: 1308–1310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Srivastava R, Duceman BW, Biro PA, Sood AK, Weissman SM (1985) Molecular organization of the class I genes of human major histocompatibility complex. Immunol Rev 84: 93–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 70.
    Svejgaard A, Kissmeyer-Nielsen F (1968) Cross-reactive human HL-A isoantibodies. Nature 219: 868–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Svejgaard A, Platz P, Ryder LP (1983) HLA and diseases 1982 — a survey. Immunol Rev 70: 193–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 72.
    Thorsby E, Berle E, Nousiainen H (1982) HLA-D region molecules restrict proliferative T cell responses to antigen. Immunol Rev 66: 39–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 73.
    Tiwari JL, Terasaki PI (1985) HLA and disease associations. Springer, Berlin HD New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 74.
    Touraine JL (1981) The bare lymphocyte syndrome, a combined immunodeficiency associated with the lack of expression of HLA antigens and ß 2 microglobulin on lymphocytes. In: Bone marrow transplatation in Europe, vol. II, Touraine JL, Gluckman E, Griscelli C (eds) Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 190–193.Google Scholar
  77. 75.
    Trowsdale J, Young JAT, Kelly AP, Austin PJ, Carson S, Meunier H, So A, Erlich HA, Spielman RS, Bodmer J, Bodmer WF (1985) Structure, sequence and polymorphism in the HLA-D region. Immunol Rev 85: 5–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    Vries RRP de, Rood JJv (1979) HLA and infectious diseases. Arch Dermatol Res 264: 89–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 77.
    White PC, New MI, Dupont B (1985) Adrenal 21-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 genes within the MHC class III region. Immunol Rev 87:123–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. R. Mayr

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations