Blutersatzstoffe

  • A. Grünert

Zusammenfassung

Unter Blutersatzstoffen im engeren Sinne werden Substanzen und Lösungen nicht-menschlichen Ursprungs verstanden, die geeignet sind, in bestimmten Krankheitssituationen die vitalen Funktionen des Blutes für eine bestimmte Zeit aufrecht zu erhalten. Zu ihnen gehören in erster Linie Elektrolytlösungen, die dem akuten Volumenersatz dienen, kolloidale wäßrige Systeme zur Aufrechterhaltung des kolloid-osmotischen Drucks und künstliche Sauerstoffträger für den Transport und Austausch der Atemgase.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Agishi T, Sonda K, Nakajima I, Fuchinoue S, Honda H, Suga H, Liu H, Teraoka S, Ota K (1992) Modified hemoglobin solution as possible perfusate relevant to organ transplantation. Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 20: 539–544Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agishi T, Funakoshi Y, Honda H, Yamagata K, Kobayashi M, Takahashi M (1988) Pyridoxylated hemoglobin-polyoxyethylene conjugate solution as blood substitute for normothermic whole body rinse-out. Biomat Art Cells Art Organs 16 (1–3): 261–270Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alayash AI (1994) Hemoglobin-based blood substitutes: potential free radical toxicity. Free Radic Biol Med 16 (1): 137–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anon (1990) 4th consensus conference on intensiv care and emergency medicine. Choice of vascular filling products for the treatment of hypovolemia in adults. Rev Prat 40 (8): 747–749Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bachir D, Galacteros F (1994) Potential alternatives to erythrocyte transfusion in hemoglobinopathies: hydroxyurea (HU), erythropoietin (EPO), butyrate derivatives, blood substitutes. Transfus Clin Biol 1: 35–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bakker JC, Berbers GA, Sleeker WK, den Boer PJ, Biessels PT (1992) Preparation and characterization of crosslinked and polymerized hemoglobin solutions. Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 20: 233–241Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barnikol WK, Burkhard O, (1987) Huge compact soluble molecules: a new old concept to develop an oxygen carrying substitute. Biomat Art Cells Art Organs 15: 346–349Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beach MC, Morley J, Spiryda I, Weinstock SB (1988) Effects of liposome encapsulated hemoglobin on the reticuloendothelial system. J Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 16: 635–636Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Behan M, OÇonnel D, Mattrey RF, Carney DN (1991) Perfluorooctylbromide as a contrast agent for sonography and computed tomography. (1993) AJR. Am J Roentgenol 160: 399405Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Billhardt RA, Rosenbush SW (1986) Cardiogenic and hypo volemic shock. Med Clin N Am 70 (4): 853–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Biro GP (1993) Perfluorcarbon-based red blood cell substitutes, Transfus Med Rev 7 (2): 84–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Biro GP, Jing N, Anderson PJ (1992) Studies on blood substitutes based on hemoglobin and perfluorocarbon. Biomat Art Cells Art Organs 20 (2–4): 1013–1020Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biro GP (1988) Blood substitutes and the cardiovascular system. Biomat Art Cells Art Organs 16 (1–3): 595–606Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Biro GP, Blais P (1987) Perfluorocarbon blood substitutes. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 6: 311–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bornert P, Norris DG, Koch H, Dreher W, Reichelt H, Leibfritz D (1993) Fast perfluorcarbon imaging using 19F U-FLARE. Magn Reson Med 29 (2): 226–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Branca D, Giron F, Conte L, Vincenti E, Scutari G (1989) Energetic behaviour of mitochondria isolated from rat livers perfused with a perfluorodecalin + N,N-perfluorodiethylcyclohexylamine emulsion. Biochem Pharmacol 38 (18): 3045–3048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruneton JN, Falewee MN, Francois E, Cambon P, Philip C, Riess JG, Balu Maestro C, Rogopoulos A (1989) Liver, spleen, and vessels: preliminary clinical results of CT with perfluorooctylbromide. Radiology 170: 179–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bunn HF (1993) The use of hemoglobin as a blood substitute. Am J Hematol 42 (1): 112–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bunn HF, Jandl JH (1968) The renal handling of hemoglobin. Trans Assoc Am Phys 81: 147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Byrne K, Tatum JL, Henry DA, Hirsch JI, Crossland M, Barnes T, Thompson JA, Young J, Sugerman HJ (1992) Increased morbidity with increased pulmonary albumin flux in sepsis-related adult respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 20: 28–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chang S, Reppucci V, Zimmerman NJ, Heinemann MH, Coleman DJ (1989) Perfluorocarbon liquids in the management of traumatic retinal detachments. Ophthalmology 96: 785–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chang TM (1992) Blood substitutes based on modified hemoglobin prepared by encapsulation or crosslinking: an overview. Biomat Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 20: 159–179Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chang TM, Farmer M, Geyer RP, Moss G (1987) Blood substitutes based on modified hemoglobin and fluorochemicals. ASAIO-Trans 33 (4): 819–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Clark LC, Gollan F (1966) Survival of mammals breathing organic liquids equilibrated with oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Science 152: 1755–1756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cron TA, Gerber H (1991) Anaphylaktoide Reaktion auf Physiogel SRK 4–ein Beitrag zur Kontroverse Anaphylactoid reaction to Physiogel SRK 4% a contribution to the controversy about plasma substitutes. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 121 (48): 1773–1776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davies MJ (1989) Crystalloid or colloid: does it matter? J Clin Anesth 1 (6): 464–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    DeVenuto F, Zegna AI (1982) Blood exchange with pyridoxä-lated-polymerized hemoglobin. Sug Gynecol Obstet 155: 342 (1982)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    DeVenuto F (1983) Modified hemoglobin solution as a resuscitation fluid. Vox Sang 44: 129–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Doweiko JP, Nompleggi DJ (1991) The role of albumin in human physiology and pathophysiology, Part III: Albumin and disease states. JPEN J Parenter Enterol Nutr 15: 476–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Draffehn J, Reichelt H (1991) Untersuchungen zur Toxizität oberflächenaktiver Substanzen zur Emulgierung von Perfluorcarbonverbindungen als Bestandteil von Blutersatzmitteln (The toxicity of surface-active substances for emulsifying perfluorocarbon compounds as components of blood substitute preparations). Pharmazie 46 (4): 271–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Draffehn J, Reichelt H, Sauer S (1991) Untersuchungen zur Einstellung des kolloidosmotischen Druckes von Blutersatzmitteln auf Perfluorcarbonbasis (The standardization of colloid osmotic pressure of blood substitutes with a perfluorocarbon base). Pharmazie 46 (7): 525–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Draffehn J, Reichelt H (1991) Untersuchungen zum rheologischen Verhalten von Blutersatzmitteln auf Perfluorcarbonbasis (Rheological behavior of blood substitutes with a perfluorcarbon basel). Pharmazie 46 (11): 800–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Edwards JD, Nightingale P, Wilkins RG, Faragher EB (1989) Hemodynamic and oxygen transport response to modified fluid gelatin in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 17 (10): 996–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Emerson TEJ (1989) Unique features of albumin: a brief review. Crit Care Med 17: 690–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Faithfull NS (1987) Fluorocarbons. Current status and future applications. Anaesthesia 42: 234–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fronticelli C, Bucci E (1994) Conformational and functional characteristics of bovine hemoglobin. Meth Enzymol 231: 150–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fronticelli C, Brinigar W, Grycznski Z, Bucci E (1991) Engineering of low oxygen affinity hemoglobins. J Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 19 (2): 385Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fuchinoue S, Takahashi K, Teraoka S, Toma H, Ashishi T, Ota K (1986) Clinical experience in kidney preservation with a new fluorocarbon emulsion perfusate. Transplant Proc 18: 566–570Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fuhrman BP, Paczan PR, DeFrancisis M (1991) Perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange. Crit Care Med 19 (5): 712–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fuhrman BP (1990) Perfluorcarbon liquid ventilation: the first human trial (editorial; comment). J Pediatr 117 (1 pt 1): 106–111Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    George M, Griffith N, Lehot JJ, Durand PG, Estanove S (1993) Comparaison dextran 40 à3,5% versus albumine à 40/0 utilisés comme solutes d’expansion volémique après chirurgie cardiaque. Effets sur les paramètres hémodynamiques et la pression oncotique colloidale (A comparison of 3,5% dextran 4o and 66. 4% albumin used as volume expansion solutions following heart surgery. Effects on the hemodynamic parameters and the oncotic colloidal pressure). Cah Anesthesiol 41 (1): 18–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Geyer RP (1985) Surfactants and perfluorochemical emulsions for use in blood replacement preparations. Int Anesthesiol Clin 23 (1): 25–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Geyer RP, Monroe RG, Taylor K (1968) Survival of rats totally 68. perfused with a fluorocarbon-detergent preparation. Organ Perfus Presery 85–96Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Giesecke AH, Grande CM, Whitten CW (1990) Fluid therapy and the resuscitation of traumatic shock. Crit Care Clin 6 (1): 61–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goldberg BB (1993) Ultrasound contrast agents. Clin Diagn Ultrasound 28: 35–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gollan F, Clark LC (1966) Organ perfusion with fluorocarbon fluid. Physiologist 9: 191Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gould SA, Sehgal LR, Sehgal HL, Moss GS (1993) Hypovolemic shock. Crit Care Clin 9 (2): 239–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gould SA, Sehgal LR, Sehgal HL, Moss GS (1992) Artificial blood: current status of hemoglobin solutions. Crit Care Clin 8: 293–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gould SA, Rosen AL, Sehgal LR, Sehgal HL, Langdale LA, Krause LM, Rice CL, Chamberlin WH, Moss GS (1986) Fluo-sol-Da as a red-cell substitute in acute anemia. N Engl J 73. Med 314 (26): 1653–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Grünert A, Qiu H, Muller I, Schuh S, Steinbach G, Wennauer R, Wolf C, Von Schenk H (1994) A new extracorporeal perfusion system: prolongation of liver organ vitality beyond 24 hours. Ann N Y Acad Sci 723: 488–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Grünert A (1994) Künstliche Sauerstoffträger–Perfluorkarbone. Infusionsther Transfusionsmed 21 [Suppl 3]: 57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grünert A (1990) Biophysical fundamentals of nutrition. Klin Anasthesiol Intensivther 40: 110–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Grünert A (1985) Onkometrie - Grundlagen, Meßtechnik and klinischer Einsatz des kolloidosmotischen Druckes. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart Berlin Köln MainzGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grünert A, Hirlinger KH, Herrmann M, Petutschnigk D (1982) Experiences with Fluosol in animal experiments. In: Frey R, Beibarth H, Stosseck K (eds) Oxygen carrying colloidal blood substitutes. Zuckschwerdt, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gulati A, Rebello S (1994) Role of adrenergic mechanisms in the pressor effect of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin. J Lab Clin Med 124: 125–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Guthrie RDJ, Hines CJ (1991) Use of intravenous albumin in the critically ill patient. Am J Gastroenterol 86: 255–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Haljamae H (1993) Volume substitution in shock. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl 98: 25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Haupt MT, Kaufman BS, Carlson RW (1992) Fluid resuscitation in patients with increased vascular permeability. Crit Care Clin 8 (2): 341–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Haupt MT (1986) Colloidal and crystalloidal fluid resuscitation in shock associated with increased capillary permeability. Curr Stud Hematol Blood Transfus 53: 86–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hong F, Shastri K, Logue G, Spaulding M (1991) Complement activation by artificial blood substitute Fluosol: in vitro and in vivo studies. Transfusion. 31 (7): 642–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Imm A, Carlson RW (1993) Fluid resuscitation in circulatory shock. Crit Care Clin 9 (2): 313–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ingram DA, Forman MB, Murray JJ (1993) Activation of complement by Fluosol attributable to the pluronic detergent micelle structure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 22 (3): 456–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Iwashita Y, Yabuki A, Yamaji K, Iwasaki K, Okami T, Hirata C, Kosaka K (1988) A new resuscitation fluid »stabilized hemoglobin« preparation and characteristics. Biomat Art Cells Art Organs 16 (1–3): 271–280Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jones MM, Longmire S, Cotton DB, Dorman KF, Skjonsby BS, Joyce TH (1986) Influence of crystalloid versus colloid infusion on peripartum colloid osmotic pressure changes. Obstet Gynecol 68 (5): 659–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jopski B, Pirkl V, Jaroni HW, Schubert R, Schmidt KH (1989) Preparation of hemoglobin-containing liposomes using octyl glucoside and octyltetraoxyethylene. Biochim Biophys Acta 978 (1): 79–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Karanko MS (1988) Plasma volume substitution. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl 89: 54–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Keipert PE, Chang TM (1988) Pyridoxylated-polyhemoglobin solution. A low viscosity oxygen-delivering blood replacement fluid with normal oncotic pressure and longterm storage feasibility. Biomat Art Cells Art Organs 16 (13): 185–196Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kent KM, Cleman MW, Cowley MJ, Forman MB, Jaffe CC, Kaplan M, King SB, Krucoff MW, Lassar T, McAuley B et al. (1990) Reduction of myocardial ischemia during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with oxygenated Fluosol. Am J Cardiol 66: 279–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kerins DM (1994) Role of the perfluorocarbon Fluosol-DA in coronary angioplasty. Am J Med Sci 307: 218–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Krafft MP, Postel M, Riess JG, Ni Y, Pelura TJ, Hanna GK, Song D (1992) Drop size stability assessment of fluorocarbon emulsions. J Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 20 (2–4): 865–868Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kretschmer V, Weippert-Kretschmer M (1993) Autologous blood transfusion as whole blood or blood components? Beitr Infusionther 31: 209–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Labrude P (1992) Current research on oxygen carriers for transfusion: hemoglobin solutions and fluorocarbon emulsions. Ann Pharm Fr 50 (5–6): 250–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lane T, Smith D, Wancewicz E, Funk R (1993) Inhibition of endotoxin-mediated activation of endothelial cells by a per-fluorocarbon emulsion. Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 21 (2): 163–172Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lenz G, Bissinger U (1994) Modifizierte Hämoglobinlösungen als künstliche Sauerstoffträger. Infusionsther Transfusionsmed 21 [Suppl 3]: 63–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lenz G (1988) Pyridoxalierte Polyhämoglobinlösung als sauerstofftransportierendes Volumenersatzmittel. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zu Hämodynamik, Sauerstofftransport and Organwirkungen. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ljungstrom KG (1993) Safety of dextran in relation to other colloids ten years experience with hapten inhibition. Infusionsther Transfusionsmed 20 (5): 206–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lowe KC (1991) Synthetic oxygen transport fluids based on perfluorochemicals: applications in medicine and biology. Vox Sang 60: 129–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lowe KC (1987) Perfluorocarbons as oxygen-transport fluids. Comp Biochem Physiol A 87 (4): 825–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lowe KC (1986) Blood transfusion or blood substitution? Vox Sang 51 (4): 257–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lowe KC, Bollands AD (1985) Physiological effects of perfluorocarbon blood substitutes. Med Lab Sci 42 (4): 367–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lundsgaard-Hansen P, Tschirren B (1980) Die Verwendung von Plasmaersatzmitteln and Albumin im Rahmen der Komponententherapie. In: Ahnefeld FW, Bergmann H, Burri C, Dick W, Halmagyi M, Hossli G, Rügheimer E (eds) Klinische Anästhesiologie and Intensivtherapie. Springer, Heidelberg pp 120–135Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lutz H et al. (1986) Effects and side effects of colloid plasma substitutes as compared to albumin. Curr Stud Hematol Blood Transfus 53: 145–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Marelli TR (1994) Use of a hemoglobin substitute in the anemic Jehovah’s Witness patient. Crit Care Nurse 14: 31–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Martin SM, Laks H, Drinkwater DC, Stein DG, Capouya ER, Pearl JM, Barthel SW, Chang P, Kaczer E, Bhuta S (1993) Perfluorochemical reperfusion yields improved myocardial recovery after global ischemia. Ann Thorac Surg 55 (4): 954960Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Maxson AD, Giger U, Sweeney CR, Tomasic M, Saik JE, Donawick WJ, Cothran EG (1993) Use of a bovine hemoglobin preparation in the treatment of cyclic ovarian hemorrhage in a miniature horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 203: 1308–1311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Meinert H, Knoblich A (1993) The use of semifluorinates alkanes in blood substitutes. Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 21 (5): 583–595Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Meinert H, Reuter P, Mader J, Haidmann L, Northoff H (1992) Syntheses, interfacial active properties and toxicity of new perfluoralkylated surfactants. Biomat Art Cells Art Organs 20 (1): 115–124Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Meinert H, Fackler R, Knoblich A, Mader J, Reuter P, Rohlke W (1992) On the perfluorocarbon emulsions of second generation. Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 20 (2–4): 805–818Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Menger MD, Thierjung C, Hammersen F, Messmer K (1993) Dextran vs. hydroxyethylstarch in inhibition of postischemic leukocyte adherence in striated muscle. Circ Shock 41: 248255Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mitsuno T, Ohyanagi H (1985) Present status of clinical studies of Fluosol-DA (20%) in Japan. Int Anesthesiol Clin 23: 169–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mitsuno T, Ohyanagi H, Naito R (1982) Clinical studies of a perfluorochemical whole blood substitute (Fluosol-DA) Summary of 186 cases. Ann Surg 195: 60–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mohan C, Gennaro M, Marini C, Ascer E (1992) Reduction of the extent of ischemic skeletal muscle necrosis by perfusion with oxygenated perfluorocarbon. Am J Surg 164 (3): 194–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nearman HS, Herman ML (1991) Toxic effects of colloids in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Clin 7 (3): 713–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ning J, Chang TMS (1988) Effects of stroma-free Hb and polyhemoglobin on complement activation, blood cell counts and coagulation factors in rats. J Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 16: 651–652Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Nishi K, Ueda S, Sato D (1994) Effects of pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate and stroma-free hemoglobin on renal vascular responsiveness to vasoactive substances in isolated perfused rat kidney. Art Organs 18: 429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Northoff H, Markovic A, Schneider U (1994) Künstliche Sauerstoffträger–begrabene Hoffnung oder Medikamente mit Zukunftspotential? Dtsch Ärztebl 91 (Heft 46): 35–39Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Odling-Smee W (1990) ABC of transfusion. Red cell substitutes. Bmj 300 (6724): 599–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ohyanagi H (1979) Fluosol DA 20 in human volunteers. Clin Therapeut 2: 306–312Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Pockaj BA, Yang JC, Lotze MT, Lange JR, Spencer WF, Steinberg SM, Topalian SL, Schwartzentruber DJ, White DE, Rosenberg SA (1994) A prospective randomizes trial evaluating colloid versus crystalloid resuscitation in the treatment of the vascular leak syndrome associated with interleukin-2 therapy. J Immunother 15 (1): 22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Police AM, Waxman K, Tominaga G (1985) Pulmonary complications after Fluosol administration to patients with life-threatening blood loss. Crit Care Med 13 (2): 96–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Prouchayret F, Dellacherie E (1993) Low oxygen affinity derivatives of human hemoglobin by fixation of polycarboxylic dextran to the oxyform. Biopolymers 33 (12): 1803–1809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rabiner SF, Helbert JR, Lopas H, Friedman LH (1967) Evaluation of a stroma-free hemoglobin solution for use as a plasma expander. J Exp Med 126: 1127–1142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rackow EC, Mecher C, Astiz ME, Griffel M, Falk JL, Weil MH (1989) Effects of pentastarch and albumin infusion on cardiorespiratory function and coagulation in patients with severe sepsis and systemic hypoperfusion. Crit Care Med 17: 394–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Redl H, Krosl P, Schlag G, Hammerschmidt DE (1989) Permeability studies in a hypovolemic traumatic shock model: comparison of Ringer’s lactate and albumin as volume replacement fluids. Resuscitation 17 (1): 77–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Reichelt H, Hoffmann G, Lederer S, Kretschmar K (1989) Veränderungen pathobiochemischer Reaktionen im traumatisch-hamorrhagischen Schock nach Therapie mit Blutersatzmitteln auf Perfluorcarbonbasis. (Changes in the pathobiochemical reactions in traumatic-hemorrhagic shock following therapy with blood substitutes based on perfluorcarbon). Z Med Lab Diagn 30 (1): 53–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rentko VT (1992) Red blood cell substitutes. Probl Vet Med 4 (4): 647–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Riess JG, Krafft MP (1992) Elaboration of fluorocarbon emulsions with improved oxygen-carrying capabilities. Adv Exp Med Biol 317: 465–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Riess JG, Dalfors JL, Hanna GK, Klein DH, Krafft MP, Pelura TJ, Schutt EG (1992) Development of highly fluid, concentrated and stable fluorocarbon emulsions for diagnosis and therapy. Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 20: 839–842Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Riess JG, Le Blanc M (1982) Solubility and transport phenomena in perfluorochemicals relevant to blood substitution and other biomedical applications. Pure Appl Chem 54: 2383–2406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rosen RL, Sehgal HL, Moss GS (1985) Transport of oxygen by perfluorochemical emulsions. Int Anesthesiol Clin 23 (1): 95103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rudolph AS, Cliff RO, Klipper R, Goins B, Phillips WT (1994) Circulation persistence and biodistribution of lyophilized liposome-encapsulatet hemoglobin: an oxygen-carrying resuscitative fluid. Crit Care Med 22 (1): 142–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ruiz J, Danel V (1989) Volume expanders. Colloidal plasma substitutes. Soins 525: 53–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Saddler JM, Horsey PJ (1987) The new generation gelatins. A review of their history, manufacture and properties. Anaesthesia 42 (9): 998–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Salmon JB, Mythen MG (1993) Pharmacology and physiology of colloids. Blood Rev 7 (2): 114–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Savitsky JP, Docziy J, Block J, Arnold JD (1978) A clinical safety trial of stroma-free hemoglobin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 250: 73–80Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schott U, Lindbom LO, Sjostrand U (1988) Hemodynamic effects of colloid concentration in experimental hemorrhage: a comparison of Ringer’s acetate, 3% dextran-6o, and 6% dextran-70. Crit Care Med 16 (4): 346–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Schönberger S (1992) Intraoperative Einflüsse von Hydroxyäthylstärke (zoo 000/0.5) 6% and Humanalbumin 5% auf Hämodynamik, Homöostase and Gerinnungsfunktion unter Blutkomponentensubstitution nach dem modifizierten Berner-Blutkomponentenschema nach Lundsgaard-Hansen. Diss, Univ UlmGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Schönfeld AH (1992) Tierexperimentelle Untersuchung zum Einfluß des Substitutionsgrades der Hydroxyethylstärke auf deren Pharmakokinetik and Pharmakodynamik. Diss, Univ UlmGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sehgal LR, Sehgal HL, Rosen AL, Gould SA, DeWoskin R, Moss GS (1988) Characteristics of polymerized pyridoxylated hemoglobin. Biomat Art Cells Art Organs 16 (1–3): 173183Google Scholar
  120. zo.Shoemaker S, Gerber M, Evans G, Paik L, Scoggin C (1993) Initial clinical experience with recombinant human hemoglobin (abstracts). Vth Int Symp Blood Substitutes, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shoemaker WC (1986) Hemodynamic and oxygen transport effects of crystalloids and colloids in critically ill patients. Curr Stud Hematol Blood Transfus 53: 155–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Shoemaker WC, Hauser CJ (1979) Critique of cristalloid versus colloid therapy in shock and shock lung. Crit Care Med 7: 117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sibbald WJ, Driedger AA, Wells GA, Myers ML, Lefcoe M (1983) The short-term effects of increasing plasma colloid osmotic pressure in patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema. Surgery 93: 620–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sloviter HA (1985) Perfluorochemical emulsions and perfusions of isolated organs. Int Anesthesiol Clin 23 (1): 37–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Smith DJ, Lane TA (1992) Effect of a high concentration per-fluorocarbon emulsion on platelet function. Biomat Art Cells Immobiliz Biotechnol 20 (2–4): 1045–1049Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Staverman AJ (1951) The theory of measurement of osmotic pressure. Rec Tray Chim Pays Bas 70: 344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Strecker U, Dick W, Madjidi A, Ant M (1993) The effect of the type of colloid on the efficacy of hypertonic saline colloid mixtures in hemorrhagic shock: dextran versus hydroxyethyl starch. Resuscitation 25 (1): 41–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Takahashi H, Miyoshi T, Boki K (1993) Study on hydrophilic properties of gelatin as a clinical wound dressing. II. Water-absorbing property and hemostatic effect of gelatin. Tokushima J Exp Med 40: 169–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Tonnessen T, Tollofsrud S, Kongsgaard UE, Hoddeland H (1993) Colloid osmotic pressure of plasma replacement fluids. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 37 (4): 424–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Traverso LW, Hollenbach SJ, Bolin RB, Langford MJ, DeGuzman LR (1986) Fluid resuscitation after an otherwise fatal hemorrhage: II. Colloid solutions. J Traum 26 (2): 176–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tremper KK, Andersson ST (1985) Perfluorochemical emulsion oxygen transport fluids: a clinical review. Annu Rev Med 36: 309–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tsuchida E, Komatsu T (1994) Synthetic hemes. Meth Enzymol 231: 167–93, 685Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Velanovich V (1989) Crystalloid versus colloid fluids resuscitation. A meta-analysis of mortality. Surgery 105 (1): 65–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Vincent JL (1991) Plugging the leaks? New insights into synthetic colloids [editorial; comment]. Crit Care Med 19: 316–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Vincent JL (1991) Fluids for reuscitation. Br J Anaesth 67 (2): 185–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Vogel H, Gunther H, Harrison DK, Anderer W, Kessler M, Peter K (1989) Hemodilution and myocardial oxygen supply. The influence of fluosol-Da. Adv Exp Med Biol 248: 653–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Vogel WM, Dennis RC, Cassidy G, Apstein CS, Valeri CR (1986) Coronary constrictor effect of stroma-free hemoglobin solutions. Am J Physiol 251: H413 - H420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Vogt N et al. (1994) Comparison of 5% human albumin and 6% 200/0.5 HES as exclusive colloid components in large surgical interventions. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 29: 150–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Von Bormann B, Friedrich M (1993) Hämodilution (Hamodilution). Klin Anaethesiol Intensivther 43: 161–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Von Bormann B, Friedrich M (1993) Indikationen and Kontraindikationen von Hamodilution (Indications and contraindications of hemodilution). Beitr Infusionsther 29: 97–117Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Von Bormann B, Aulich S, Klein R (1993) Volumentherapie in der operativen Medizin. Krankenhaus Arzt 66: 44–51Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Walder RY, Andracki ME, Walder JA (1994) Preparation of intramolecularly cross-linked hemoglobins. Meth Enzymol 231: 274–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Wall TC, Calif RM, Blankenship J, Talley JD, Tannenbaum M, Schwaiger M, Gacioch G, Cohen MD, Sanz M, Leimberger JD et al. (1994) Intravenous Fluosol in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Results of the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction 9 Trial. TAMI 9 Research Group. Circulation 90: 114–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Waschke K, Krieter H, Albrecht DM, van Ackern K, Kuschinsky W (1993) Modified hemoglobin as a blood substitute in a rat model. Anaesthesist 42: 90–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Watanabe M (1992) Use of Fluosol-DA for rescue of Jehovah’s witnesses patients. In: Frey R, Beisbarth H, Stosseck K (eds) Oxygen carrying colloidal blood substitutes. Zuckschwerdt, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Waters LM, Christensen MA, Sato RM (1989) Hetastarch: an alternative colloid in burn shock management. Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery University Medical Center, CA 94305 10 (1): 11–16Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Waxman K, Tremper KK, Mason GR (1985) Blood and plasma substitutes-plasma expansion and oxygen transport properties. West J Med 143 (2): 202–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Webb AR, Barclay SA, Bennett ED (1989) In vitro colloid osmotic pressure of commonly used plasma expanders and substitutes: a study of the diffusibility of colloid molecules. Int Care Med 15 (2): 116–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Weigand K (1980) Synthese, Verteilung und Bedeutung von Serumalbumin. In: Ahnefeld FW, Bergmann H, Burri C, Dick W, Halmagyi M, Hossli G, Rügheimer E (Hrsg) Klinische Anästhesiologie und Intensivtherapie. Springer, Heidelberg S 52–64Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Weigand MAM (1992) Tierexperimentelle Untersuchung zum Einfluß des Molekulargewichtes der Hydroxyethylstärke auf deren Pharmakokinetik und Pharmakodynamik. Diss, Univ UlmGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Winslow RM (1994) Vasoconstriction and the efficacy of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes. Transfus Clin Biol 1: 9–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Xue H, Wong JT (1994) Preparation of conjugated hemoglobins. Meth Enzymol 231: 308–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Zadrobilek E, Hackl W, Sporn P, Steinbereithner K (1989) Effect of large volume replacement with crystalloids on extra-vascular lung water in human septic shock syndrome. Prog Clin Biol Res 308: 809–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Zheng S, Zheng Y, Beissinger RL, Wasan DT, McCormick DL (1993) Hemoglobin multiple emulsion as an oxygen delivery system. Biochim Biophys Acta 1158 (1): 65–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Zikria BA, King TC, Stanford J, Freeman HP (1989) A biophysical approach to capillary permeability. Surgery 105: 625–631PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Grünert

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations