Cell Plate Formation: Knowledge from Studies Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells

  • Tetsuhiro Asada
  • Hiroki Yasuhara
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 53)


In higher plants, cytokinesis is achieved by cell plate formation, which is responsible for the assembly of the new plasma membrane and new wall matrix. In somatic cell types, this process initiates with the generation of an immature cell plate between separating groups of anaphase chromosomes, and proceeds by centrifugal growth of the cell plate. This cytokinetic process contrasts with those in animal, fungal, and most alga cells, where cleavage of parental cytoplasm starts from the cell cortex with inward furrowing of the plasma membrane (Pickett-Heaps 1975; Gunning 1982; Glotzer 2001; Guertin et al. 2002). The outward cleavage characterizing higher plant cytokinesis ensures partitioning of daughter nuclei irrespective of parental cell volume and selected division plane, and thus is thought to contribute to the ability of higher plants to flexibly set the plane of cell division, and thereby generate variable cell arrangements. Much information about the structure and function of the apparatus responsible for this higher plant-specific cytokinesis, namely the phragmoplast, has been accumulated through studies using stamen hair cells of Tradescantia and endosperm cells of Haemanthus (Gunning 1982; Bajer et al. 1987).


Cell Plate Curr Opin Plant Biol Living Plant Cell Cell Plate Formation Callose Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akashi T, Izumi K, Nagano E, Enomoto M, Mizuno K, Shibaoka H (1988) Effects of propyzamide on tobacco cell microtubules in vivo and in vitro. Plant Cell Physiol 29: 1053–1062Google Scholar
  2. Asada T, Shibaoka H (1994) Isolation of polypeptides with microtubule-translocating activity from phragmoplasts of tobacco BY-2 cells. J Cell Sci 107: 2249–2257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Asada T, Sonobe S, Shibaoka H (1991) Microtubule translocation in the cytokinetic apparatus of cultured tobacco cells. Nature 350: 238–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asada T, Kuriyama R, Shibaoka H (1997) TKRP125, a kinesin-related protein involved in the centrosome-independent organization of the cytokinetic apparatus in tobacco BY-2 cells. J Cell Sci 110: 179–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Assaad FF, Huet Y, Mayer U, Jürgens G (2001) The cytokinesis gene KEULE encodes a Sec1 protein that binds the syntaxin KNOLLE. J Cell Biol 152: 531–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bajer AS, Vantard M, Mole-Bajer J (1987) Multiple mitotic transports expressed by chromosome and particle movement. Fortschr Zool 34: 171–186Google Scholar
  7. Bogre L, Calderini O, Binarova P, Mattauch M, Till S, Kiegerl S, Jonak C, Pollaschek C, Barker P, Huskisson NS, Hirt H, Heberle-Bors E (1999) A MAP kinase is activated late in plant mitosis and becomes localized to the plane of cell division. Plant Cell 11: 101–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonsignore CL, Hepler PK (1985) Caffeine inhibition of cytokinesis: dynamics of cell plate formation-deformation in vivo. Protoplasma 129: 28–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowser J, Reddy AS (1997) Localization of a kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein in dividing cells of Arabidopsis and tobacco. Plant J 12: 1429–1437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calderini O, Bogre L, Vicente O, Binarova P, Heberle-Bors E, Wilson C (1998) A cell cycle regulated MAP kinase with a possible role in cytokinesis in tobacco cells. J Cell Sci 111: 3091–3100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Euteneuer U, McIntosh JR (1980) Polarity of midbody and phragmoplast microtubules. J Cell Biol 87: 509–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Glotzer M (2001) Animal cell cytokinesis. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17: 351–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gu X, Verma DP (1997) Dynamics of phragmoplastin in living cells during cell plate formation and uncoupling of cell elongation from the plane of cell division. Plant Cell 9: 157–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Guertin DA, Trautmann S, McCollum D (2002) Cytokinesis in eukaryotes. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66: 155–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gunning BES (1982) The cytokinetic apparatus: its development and spatial regulation. In: Lloyd CW (ed) The cytoskeleton in plant growth and development. Academic Press, London, pp 229–292Google Scholar
  16. Hardham AR, Gunning BES (1980) Some effects of colchicine on microtubules and cell division in roots of Azolla pinnata. Protoplasma 102: 31–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heese M, Mayer U, Jürgens G (1998) Cytokinesis in flowering plants: cellular process and developmental integration. Curr Opin Plant Biol 1: 486–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hepler PK (1982) Endoplasmic reticulum in formation of the cell plate and plasmodesmata. Protoplasma 111: 121–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hepler PK, Bonsignore CL (1990) Caffeine inhibition of cytokinesis: Ultrastructure of cell plate formation-degradation. Protoplasma 157: 182–192Google Scholar
  20. Hepler PK, Hush JM (1996) Behavior of microtubules in living plant cells. Plant Physiol 112:455– 461Google Scholar
  21. Hong Z, Delauney AJ, Verma DP (2001a) A cell plate-specific callose synthase and its interaction with phragmoplastin. Plant Cell 13: 755–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hong Z, Zhang Z, Olson JM, Verma DP (2001b) A novel UDP-glucose transferase is part of the callose synthase complex and interacts with phragmoplastin at the forming cell plate. Plant Cell 13: 769–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hush JM, Wadsworth P, Callaham DA, Hepler PK (1994) Quantification of microtubule dynamics in living plant cells using fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching. J Cell Sci 107:775– 784Google Scholar
  24. Jürgens M, Hepler LH, Rivers BA, Hepler PK (1994) BAPTA-calcium buffers modulate cell plate formation in stamen hairs of Tradescantia: evidence for calcium gradients. Protoplasma 183: 86–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kakimoto T, Shibaoka H (1988) Cytoskeletal ultrastructure of phragmoplast-nuclei complexes isolated from cultured tobacco cells. Protoplasma (Suppl) 2: 95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kakimoto T, Shibaoka H (1992) Synthesis of polysaccharides in phragmoplasts isolated from tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Cell Physiol 33: 353–361Google Scholar
  27. Koshland DE, Mitchison TJ, Kirschner MW (1988) Polewards chromosome movement driven by microtubule depolymerization in vitro. Nature 331: 499–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumagai F, Yoneda A, Tomida T, Sano T, Nagata T, Hasezawa S (200 1) Fate of nascent microtubules organized at the M/G1 interface, as visualized by synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells stably expressing GFP-tubulin: time-sequence observations of the reorganization of cortical microtubules in living plant cells. Plant Cell Physiol 42: 723–732Google Scholar
  29. Lauber MH, Waizenegger I, Steinmann T, Schwarz H, Mayer U, Hwang I, Lukowitz W, Jürgens G (1997) The Arabidopsis KNOLLE protein is a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin. J Cell Biol 139: 1485–1493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee YR, Giang HM, Liu B (2001) A novel plant kinesin-related protein specifically associates with the phragmoplast organelles. Plant Cell 13: 2427–2439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu B, Lee YRJ (2001) Kinesin-related proteins in plant cytokinesis. J Plant Growth Reg 20:141–150 Liu B, Cyr RJ, Palevitz BA (1996) A kinesin-like protein, KatAp, in the cells of Arabidopsis and other plants. Plant Cell 8: 119–132Google Scholar
  32. Mitchison TJ (1989) Polewards microtubule flux in the mitotic spindle: evidence from photoactivation of fluorescence. J Cell Biol 109: 637–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moore PJ, Staehelin LA (1988) Immunogold localization of the cell-wall-matrix polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan-I and xyloglucan during cell expansion and cytokinesis in Trifolium pratense L; implication for secretory pathways. Planta 174: 433–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nacry P, Mayer U, Jürgens G (2000) Genetic dissection of cytokinesis. Plant Mol Biol 43:719–733 Nagata T, Okada K, Takebe I (1982) Mitotic protoplasts and their infection with tobacco mosaic virus RNA encapsulated in liposomes. Plant Cell Rep 1: 250–252Google Scholar
  35. Nagata T, Nemoto Y, Hasezawa S (1992) Tobacco BY-2 cell line as the “HeLâ cell in the cell biology of higher plants. Int Rev Cytol 132: 1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nishihama R, Machida Y (2001) Expansion of the phragmoplast during plant cytokinesis: a MAPK pathway may MAP it out. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4: 507–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nishihama R, Ishikawa M, Araki S, Soyano T, Asada T, Machida Y (2001) The NPK1 mitogenactivated protein kinase kinase kinase is a regulator of cell-plate formation in plant cytokinesis. Genes Dev 15: 352–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nishihama R, Soyano T, Ishikawa M, Araki S, Tanaka H, Asada T, Irie K, Ito M, Terada M, Banno H, Yamazaki Y, Machida Y (2002) Expansion of the cell plate in plant cytokinesis requires a kinesin-like protein/MAPKKK complex. Cell 109: 87–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Northcote DH, Davey R, Lay J (1989) Use of antisera to localize callose, xylan and arabinogalactanGoogle Scholar
  40. in the cell-plate, primary and secondary walls of plant cells. Planta 178:353–366Google Scholar
  41. Otegui M, Staehelin LA (2000) Cytokinesis in flowering plants: more than one way to divide aGoogle Scholar
  42. cell. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:493–502Google Scholar
  43. Palevitz BA, Hepler PK (1974) The control of the plane of division during stomatal differentiation in Allium. Chromosoma 46: 327–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Patterson GH, Lippincott-Schwartz J (2002) A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells. Science 13: 1873–1877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Picket-Heaps JD (1975) Green algae: structure, reproduction and evolution in selected genera. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  46. Rutten TLM, Kuniman B (1993) Brefeldin A effects on tobacco pollen tubes. Eur J Cell Biol 61:247– 255Google Scholar
  47. Samuels AL, Staehelin LA (1996) Caffeine inhibits cell plate formation by disrupting membrane reorganization just after the vesicle fusion step. Protoplasma 195: 144–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Samuels AL, Giddings TH, Staehelin LA (1995) Cytokinesis in tobacco BY-2 and root tip cells: a new model of cell plate formation in higher plants. J Cell Biol 130: 1345–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shibaoka H (1993) The use of tobacco BY-2 cells for studies of the plant cytoskeleton. J Plant Res (Special issue) 3: 3–15Google Scholar
  50. Smith LG (1999) Divide and conquer: cytokinesis in plant cells. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2:447–453 Smith LG (2002) Plant cytokinesis: motoring to the finish. Curr Biol 12: R206–R208Google Scholar
  51. Smirnova EA, Reddy AS, Bowser J, Bajer AS (1998) Minus end-directed kinesin-like motorGoogle Scholar
  52. protein, Kcbp, localizes to anaphase spindle poles in Haemanthus endosperm. Cell MotilGoogle Scholar
  53. Cytoskeleton 41:271–280Google Scholar
  54. Song H, Golovkin M, Reddy AS, Endow SA (1997) In vitro motility of AtKCBP, a calmodulinbinding kinesin protein of Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 322–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sonobe S, Nakayama N, Shimmen T, Sone S (2000) Intracellular distribution of subcellular organelles revealed by antibody against xyloglucan during cell cycle in tobacco BY-2 cells. Protoplasma 213: 218–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Strompen G, El Kasmi F, Richter S, Lukowitz W, Assaad FF, Jürgens G, Mayer U (2002) The Arabidopsis HINKEL gene encodes a kinesin-related protein involved in cytokinesis and is expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Curr Biol 12: 153–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Valster AH, Hepler PK (1997) Caffeine inhibition of cytokinesis: effect on the phragmoplast cytoskeleton in living Tradescantia stamen hair cells. Protoplasma 196: 155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Verma DPS (2001) Cytokinesis and building of the cell plate in plants. Annu Rev Plant Phys 52: 751–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vos JW, Safadi F, Reddy AS, Hepler PK (2000) The kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein is differentially involved in cell division. Plant Cell 12: 979–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Waizenegger I, Lukowitz W, Assaad F, Schwarz H, Jürgens G, Mayer U (2000) The Arabidopsis KNOLLE and KEULE genes interact to promote vesicle fusion during cytokinesis. Curr Biol 10: 1371–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yasuhara H, Shibaoka H (2000) Inhibition of cell-plate formation by brefeldin A inhibited the depolymerization of microtubules in the central region of the phragmoplast. Plant Cell Physiol 41: 300–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yasuhara H, Sonobe S, Shibaoka H (1992) ATP-sensitive binding to microtubules of polypeptides extracted from isolated phragmoplast of tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Cell Physiol 33: 601–608Google Scholar
  63. Yasuhara H, Sonobe S, Shibaoka H (1993) Effects of taxol on the development of the cell plate and of the phragmoplast in tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Cell Physiol 34: 21–29Google Scholar
  64. Yasuhara H, Sonobe S, Shobaoka H (1995) Effects of brefeldin A on the formation of the cell plate in tobacco BY-2 cells. Eur J Cell Biol 66: 274–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Yasuhara H, Muraoka M, Shogaki H, Mori H, Sonobe S (2002) TMBP200, a microtubule bundling polypeptide isolated from telophase BY-2 cells is a MOR1 homologue. Plant Cell Physiol 43: 595–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yokoyama R, Nishitani K (2001) Endoxyloglucan transferase is localized both in the cell plate and in the secretory pathway destined for the apoplast in tobacco cells. Plant Cell Physiol 42: 292–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhang D, Wadsworth P, Hepler PK (1990) Microtubule dynamics in living dividing plant cells: confocal imaging of microinjected fluorescent brain tubulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:8820– 8824Google Scholar
  68. Zuo J, Niu QW, Nishizawa N, Wu Y, Kost B, Chua NH (2000) KORRIGAN, an Arabidopsis endo1,4-beta-glucanase, localizes to the cell plate by polarized targeting and is essential for cytokinesis. Plant Cell 12: 1137–1152PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tetsuhiro Asada
    • 1
  • Hiroki Yasuhara
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Graduate School of ScienceOsaka UniversityToyonaka, OsakaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of EngineeringKansai UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations