Dynamic Behavior of Microtubules and Vacuoles at M/G1 Interface Observed in Living Tobacco BY-2 Cells
Plant cells expand mainly by water uptake into vacuoles. Although the turgor pressure of the cells is isotropic, most of the cells elongate anisotropically. This transformation of the isotropic force into the anisotropic growth is achieved by the establishment of “hoops” consisting of cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) in the cell walls. The cells can only elongate perpendicular to the newly organized CMFs, deposited at the innermost layer of the cell wall. The orientation of CMFs has been thought to be regulated by cortical microtubules (CMTs) under the cell cortex; from the observations that they run parallel to the CMFs, disturbance of CMTs resulted in aberrant cell elongation and the mutants with abnormal CMTs showed defects in elongation (for a recent review, see Baskin 2001). During the cell cycle progression, CMTs are observed only during interphase, and are then thoroughly destroyed during M phase. While CMTs are absent for about 2 h in BY-2 cells, are their any regulatory mechanisms to inhibit cell expansion into aberrant directions? And how do the daughter cells restore the next direction of expansion properly at the M/G1 interface?
KeywordsCell Cycle Progression Okadaic Acid Bright Spot Cell Plate Daughter Nucleus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- An G (1985) High efficiency transformation of cultured tobacco cells. Plant Physiol 79:568–570 Baskin TI (2001) On the alignment of cellulose microfibrils by cortical microtubules: a review and a model. Protoplasma 215: 150–171Google Scholar
- Bichet A, Desnos T, Turner S, Grandjean O, Hoeffe H (2001) BOTERO1 is required for normal orientation of cortical microtubules and anisotropic cell expansion in Arabidopsis. Plant J 25: 137–148Google Scholar
- Erhardt M, Stoppin-Mellet V, Campagne S, Canaday J, Mutterer J, Fabian T, Sauter M, Muller T, Peter C, Lambert AM, Schmit AC (2002) The plant Spc98 homologue colocalized with gtubulin at microtubule nucleation sites and is required for microtubule nucleation. J Cell Sci 115: 2423–2431PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hasezawa S, Nagata T (1992) Okadaic acid as a probe to analyse the cell cycle progression in plant cells. Bot Acta 105: 63–69Google Scholar
- Hasezawa S, Ueda K, Kumagai F (2000) Time-sequence observations of microtubule dynamics throughout mitosis in living cell suspensions of stable transgenic Arabidopsis–direct evidence for the origin of cortical microtubules at M/G1 interface. Plant Cell Physiol 41:244– 250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumagai F, Yoneda A, Tomida T, Sano T, Nagata T, Hasezawa S (200 1) Fate of nascent microtubules organized at the M/G1 interface as visualized by synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells stably expressing GFP-tubulin. Time-sequence observations of the reorganization of cortical microtubules in living plant cells. Plant Cell Physiol 42: 723–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kutsuna N, Kumagai F, Sato MH, Hasezawa S (2003) Three-dimensional reconstruction of tubular structure of vacuolar membrane throughout mitosis in living tobacco cells. Plant Cell Physiol, in pressGoogle Scholar
- Lloyd C, Chan J (2002) Helical microtubule arrays and spiral growth. Plant Cell 14:2319–2324 Ludin B, Maturs A (1998) GFP illuminates the cytoskeleton. Trends Cell Biol 8: 72–77Google Scholar
- Sugimoto K, Williamson RE, Wasteneys GO (2001) Wall architecture in the cellulose-deficient rsw1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana: microfibrils but not microtubules lose their transverse alignment before microfibrils became unrecognizable in the mitotic and elongation zones of roots. Protoplasma 215: 172–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wasteneys GO (2000) The cytoskeleton and growth polarity. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:503–511 Wasteneys GO (2002) Microtubule organization in the green kingdom: chaos or self-order? J Cell Sci 115: 1345–1354Google Scholar
- Wasteneys GO, Williamson RE (1989) Reassembly of microtubules in Nitella tasmanica: assembly of cortical microtubules in branching clusters and its relevance to steady-state microtubule assembly. J Cell Sci 93: 705–714Google Scholar
- Yoneda A, Hasezawa S (2003) Origin of cortical microtubules organized at M/G1 interface: Recruitment of tubulin from phragmoplast to nascent microtubules. Eur J Cell Biol, in pressGoogle Scholar