Improvements of the Molecular Toolbox for Cell Cycle Studies in Tobacco BY-2 Cells

  • Jérôme Joubès
  • Dirk Inzé
  • Danny Geelen
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 53)


The cell cycle is a highly ordered process consisting of four consecutive phases, G1, S (DNA replication), G2, and M (mitosis) that lead to the formation of two daughter cells. During G1 phase, the cell monitors its own environment and size, before entering the replication phase. Once committed, the nuclear DNA is duplicated and the cell goes into a state of apparent inactivity, called G2 phase. The G2 phase can be regarded as a safety gap whereby the cell ensures that DNA replication has been completed before mitosis starts. By cytological analysis various stages are distinguished within the M phase, including nuclear division or karyokinesis and cytoplasmic division, also referred to as cytokinesis. Traditionally, mitosis is divided into subsequent stages designated prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Additionally, a sixth stage can be discerned that takes place at the end of mitosis, during which cytokinesis occurs.


Cortical Microtubule loxP Site Destination Vector Preprophase Band Cell Cycle Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jérôme Joubès
    • 1
  • Dirk Inzé
    • 1
  • Danny Geelen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Systems BiologyVIB/Ghent UniversityGhentBelgium

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