Block Points in the Cell Cycle Progression of Plant Cells: Deduced Lessons from Tobacco BY-2 Cells

  • Toshio Sano
  • Takashi Shimizu
  • Kenichi Sakamoto
  • Toshiyuki Nagata
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 53)


The proliferation of cells is an essential framework for plant growth and development, as cells supplied by cell division constitute plant body; however, a lot of issues on this subject remain to be clarified. Although there are common features in the proliferation of eukaryotic cells, there are several unique characteristics that are inherent in plant cells. For instance, the septum formation at the completion of cytokinesis results in the alignment of daughter cells side by side which constitute plant bodies with a sessile nature. Although a cytological description of plant cell division has been done with a few cells in tissues such as root tips, comprehensive views particularly on molecular terms cannot be demonstrated with such microscope methods and can be done only with the use of highly synchronized cell populations. As noted by Nagata in the first chapter of this volume, this high synchrony was attained in 1982, some 20 years ago, when the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase by aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase a, and the release of this drug allowed a synchronized cell population starting from S phase to be obtained (Nagata et al. 1982). In addition, a combination of aphidicolin treatment and subsequent propyzamide treatment, a microtubule destabilizing drug, brought us an even more highly synchronized system starting from M phase (Kakimoto and Shibaoka 1988, Nagata et al. 1992). Since then, the high cell synchrony methods using tobacco BY-2 cells are the only available ones for higher plants and even today, no alternative systems in higher plant cell lines have been reported. For this reason, this system is considered to be the inevitable one for studies of various aspects of plant cells and many other issues (Nagata et al. 1992), major themes of which are handled in other chapters of this volume.


Cell Cycle Progression Phosphate Starvation Phosphate Addition Plant Cell Cycle Induce Cell Division 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beffagna N, Romani G, Meraviglia G, Pallini S (1997) Effects of abscisic acid and cytoplasmic pH on potassium and chloride efflux in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Plant Cell Physiol 38:503– 510Google Scholar
  2. Choi H, Hong J, Ha J, Kang J, Kim SY (2000) ABFs, a family of ABA-responsive element binding factors. J Biol Chem 275: 1723–1730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davies C, Robinson SP (2000) Differential screening indicates a dramatic change in mRNA profiles during grape berry ripening. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding putative cell wall and stress response proteins. Plant Physiol 122: 803–812Google Scholar
  4. Finkelstein RR, Lynch TJ (2000) The Rabidopsis abscisic acid response gene ABI5 encodes a basic leucine zipper transcription factor. Plant Cell 12: 599–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hobo T, Kowyama Y, Hattori T (1999) A bZIP factor, TRAB1, interacts with VP1 and mediates abscisic acid-induced transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 11152–11156Google Scholar
  6. Ishida S, Takahashi Y, Nagata T (1993) Isolation of cDNA of an auxin-regulated gene encoding a G protein subunit-like protein from tobacco BY-2 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:11152– 11156Google Scholar
  7. Kakimoto T, Shibaoka H (1988) Cytoskeletal ultrastructure of phragmoplast-nuclei complexes isolated from cultured tobacco cells. Protoplasma Suppl 2: 95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kim SY, Chung H, Thomas TL (1997) Isolation of a novel class of bZIP transcription factors that interact with ABA-responsive and embryo-specification elements in the Dc3promoter using a modified yeast one-hybrid system. Plant J 11: 1237–1251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kuraya Y (1996) The role of phosphate as a limiting factor for the proliferation of tobacco BY-2 cells. Master Thesis, University of TokyoGoogle Scholar
  10. Linsmaier EM, Skoog F (1965) Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 18: 100–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lopez-Molina L, Mongrand S, Chua N-H (2001) A postgermination developmental arrest checkpoint is mediated by abscisic acid and requires the ABI5 transcription factor in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 4782–4787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Matsubayashi Y, Takagi L, Sakagami Y (1997) Phytosulfokine, a sulfated pentapeptide, stimulates the proliferation of rice cells by means of specific high-and low-affinity binding sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 13357–13362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Matsubayashi Y, Ogawa M, Morita A, Sakagami Y (2002) An LRR receptor kinase involved inGoogle Scholar
  14. perception of a peptide plant hormone, phytosulfokine. Science 296:1470–1472Google Scholar
  15. Meins Jr F (1982) Habituation of cultured plant cells. In: Kahl G, Schell JS (eds) Molecular biologyGoogle Scholar
  16. of plant tumors. Academic Press, New York, pp 3–31Google Scholar
  17. Meins Jr F (1989) Habituation: Heritable variation in the requirement of cultured plant cell for hormones. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 23: 395–408Google Scholar
  18. Mimura T (1999) Regulation of phosphate transport and homeostasis in plant cells. Int Rev Cytol 191: 149–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mochly-Rosen D (1995) Localization of protein kinases by anchoring proteins. Science 268:247– 251Google Scholar
  20. Nagata T, Kumagai F (1999) Plant cell biology through the window of highly synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell line. Method Cell Sci 21: 123–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nagata T, Okada K, Takebe I (1982) Mitotic protoplasts and their infection with tobacco mosaic virus RNA encapsulating in liposomes. Plant Cell Rep 1: 250–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nagata T, Nemoto Y, Hasezawa S (1992) Tobacco BY-2 cell line as the “HeLâ cell in the cell biology of higher plants. Int Rev Cytol 32: 1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nagata T, Ishida S, Nagata S, Takahashi Y (1999) Factors affecting cell division in plant cells. In: Altman A (ed) Plant biotechnology and in vitro biology in the 21st century. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 429–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nagata T, Kumagai F, Sano T (2001) The regulation of the cell cycle in cultured cells. In: Francis D (ed) The plant cell cycle and its interfaces. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, pp 74–86Google Scholar
  25. Nakagami H, Kawamura K, Sekine M, Shinmyo A (2002) Phosphorylation of retinoblastomarelated protein by the cyclin D/cyclin-dependent kinase complex is activated at the G1/Sphase transition in tobacco. Plant Cell 14: 1847–1857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nakajima H, Yokota T, Matsumoto T, Noguchi M, Takahashi N (1979) Relationship between hormone content and autonomy in various autonomous tobacco cells cultured in suspension. Plant Cell Physiol 29: 1489–1499Google Scholar
  27. Neer EJ, Schmidt CJ, Nambudripad R, Smith TF (1994) The ancient regulatory-protein family of WD-repeat proteins. Nature 371: 297–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nishihama R, Soyano T, Ishikawa M, Asada T, Irie K, Ito M, Banno H, Yamazaki Y, Machida Y (2002) Expansion of the cell plate in plant cytokinesis requires a kinesin-like protein/ MAPKKK complex. Cell 109: 87–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Noguchi M, Matsumoto T, Hirata Y, Yamamoto K, Katsuyama A, Kato A, Azechi S, Kato K (1977) Improvement of growth rates of plant cell cultures. In: Barz W, Reinhardt E, Zenk MH (eds) Plant tissue culture and its biotechnological application. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp. 85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Philipper K, Fuchs L, Lüthen H, Hoth S, Bauer CS, Haga K, Thiel G, Leujng K, Sanberg G, Böttger M, Becker D, Hedrich R (1999) Auxin-induced K channel expression represents an essential step in coleoptile growth and gravitropism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 12186–12191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sano T, Nagata T (2002) The possible involvement of phosphate-induced phi-2 gene from tobacco BY-2 cells in ABA-signaling pathway. Plant Cell Physiol 43: 12–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sano T, Kuraya Y, Amino S, Nagata T (1999) Phosphate as a limiting factor for the cell division of tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Cell Physiol 40: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schachmann DP, Reid RJ, Ayling SM (1998) Phosphorus uptake by plants: from soil to cell. Plant Physiol 116: 447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scott VES, Rettig J, Parcej DJ, Keen JN, Findlay JBC, Pongs O, Dolly JO (1994) Primary structure of a b–subunit of a–dendrotoxin-sensitive K -channel from bovine brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 1637–1641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Syono K, Fujita T (1994) Habituation as tumorous state that is interchangeable with a normal state in plant cells. Int Rev Cytol 152: 265–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshio Sano
    • 1
  • Takashi Shimizu
    • 1
  • Kenichi Sakamoto
    • 1
  • Toshiyuki Nagata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceThe University of TokyoBunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations