Benefits of Water-Fuel Emulsion on Automotive Diesel Exhaust Emissions

  • K. Lombaert
  • L. Le Moyne
  • P. Guibert
  • J. Tardieu de Maleissye
  • J. Amouroux
Conference paper

Abstract

Water fuel emulsion is widely used to control pollutant emissions in large and medium diesel engines. The application of this fuel to small automotive engines has been limited by the emulsion stability and economic difficulties to calibrate engine parameters for a new fuel. This work is focused on the effects of the use of water fuel emulsion on standard automotive engines performances and on pollutant emissions. No specific calibration or modification of engine has been carried. The effective benefits of water fuel emulsion combustion are explained. Particularly, emitted particulates are reduced by half, EPA referenced PAH concentration in the particulate are reduced by a factor of three, and NOx by 40 %, compared to the same engine operating on standard commercial fuel. Both standard and common rail direct injection systems were tested and a special study was dedicated to cold start pollutants showing the large production of carcinogenic compounds.

Keywords

Combustion Surfactant Enthalpy Torque Hydrocarbon 

Notation

VOC

Volatile Organic compounds

CO

Monoxide Carbon

HC

Unburned Hydrocarbons

SOF

Soluble Organic Fraction

BMEP

Break Mean Effective Pressure

CO2

Carbon Dioxide

EGR

Exhaust Gas Recirculation

ASE

Accelerated Solvent Extractor

GC/MS

Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry

FID

Ionization Flame Detector

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

PM10

Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter lower to 10 μm

NDIR

Non-Dispersive Infra-Red

SPME

Solid Phase Micro-Extraction

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews G.E, Clarke A.J, Rojas N.Y, Gregory D and Sale T (2000) Diesel particle size distribution changes along a practical exhaust system during cold start in a passenger car IDI diesel. SAE paper 2000–01–0514.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews G.E, Ishaq R.B, Farrar-Khan J.R, Shen Y and WilliamsP.T (1998) The influence of speciated fuel composition on speciated particulate SOF emissions, SAE paper 980527.Google Scholar
  3. Barnaud F, Schmelzle P and Schulz P (2000) Aquazole’M: an original emulsified water–diesel fuel for heavy–duty applications. SAE paper 2000–01–1861.Google Scholar
  4. Barnes A, Duncan D, Marshall J, Psaila A, Chadderton J and Eastlake A. (2000) Evaluation of water–blend fuels in a city bus and a assessment of performance with emission control devices. SAE paper 2000–01–1915 SP 1551.Google Scholar
  5. Berubé K.A, Jones T.P, Williamson B.J, Winters C, Morgan A.J and Richards R.J (1999) Physicochemical characterisation of diesel exhaust particles: factors for assessing biological activity. Atmospheric Environment: vol 33: pp 1599–1614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bielaczyc P, Merkisz J and Pielecha J (2001) Investigation of exhaust emissions from a DI diesel engine during cold and warm start. SAE paper 2001–01–1260.Google Scholar
  7. Boulter P.G (1997) Environmental traffic management review: Factors affecting cold start emissions. Transport Research Laboratory: vol 270.Google Scholar
  8. Brown K.F, Chadderton J, Daly D.T, Langer D.A and Duncan D (2000) Opportunity for diesel emission reductions using advanced catalysts and water blend fuel. SAE paper 200001–0182, SP 1647.Google Scholar
  9. Benefits of Water-Fuel Emulsion on Automotive Diesel Exhaust Emissions 175Google Scholar
  10. Daly D (2001) Mechanism of soot suppression during diesel combustion by water. Fuel Chemistry Division Preprints: vol 46, pp 394–399Google Scholar
  11. Degobert P (1992) Automobile et Pollution, Ed. Technip.Google Scholar
  12. Douce F (2001) Etude de la formation des particules de suie à partir de constituants représentatifs du gazole, Thèse Université d’Orléans.Google Scholar
  13. Frenklach M and Warnatz J (1987) Detailed modeling of PAH profiles in a sooting low-pressure acteylene flame. Combustion Science and Technology: vol 51, pp 265–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Graham SC, Homer JB and Rosenfeld JLJ (1975) The formation and coagulation on soot aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons. Proceeding of the Royal Society of London: vol A344:pp 259–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hoon Song K, Lee Y and Litzinger T.A (2000) Effects of emulsified fuels on soot evolution in an optically–accessible DI diesel engine. SAE paper 2000–01–2794.Google Scholar
  16. Lombaert K, Le Moyne L., Tardieu de Maleissye J., Amouroux J. (2002) “Analysis of Diesel soot: influence of air/fuel ratio and fuel composition on PAH content”, International Journal of Engine Research, vol 3, pp 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McRae C, Sun C.G, McMillan C.F, Snape C.E and Fallick A.E (2000) Sourcing coal combustion-derived PAH in the environment. American Chemical Society, Division of fuel Chemistry, Preprints of symposia: vol 45, pp 40–44.Google Scholar
  18. Ntziachristos L, Samaras Z, Pistikopoulos P and Kyriakis N (2000) Statistical Analysis of Diesel Fuel Effects on Particle Number and Mass Emissions. Environmental Science and Technology: vol 34: pp 5106–5114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Park J.W, Huh K.Y and Lee J.H (2001) Reduction of NOx, smoke and brake specific fuel consumption with optimal injection timing and emulsion ratio of water-emulsified diesel. Journal of Automobile Engineering: vol 215, pp 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ping Shi J and Harrison R. M. (1999) Investigation of ultrafine particle formation during diesel exhaust dilution. Environmental Science and Technology: vol 33, pp 3730–3736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Quisefit J.P and Gaudichet A (1998) Prélèvements des aérosols atmosphériques et analyses inorganiques. Analusis Magazine: vol 26: pp 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Richter H and Howard J.B. (2000) Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their growth to soot-a review of chemical reaction pathways. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science: vol 26, pp 565–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stoner M and Litzinger T (1999) Effects of structure and boiling point of oxygenated blending compounds in reducing diesel emissions. SAE paper 1999–01–1475, SP 1461.Google Scholar
  24. Vichniesky R, Murat M, Parois A, Dujeu M (1975) Emploi des emulsions eau-fuel dans les moteurs à allumage par compression. 11eme Congrés International des Machines à Combustion, Barcelone, pp 615–652.Google Scholar
  25. Wang L.P and Fu W.B (2001) An analysis of the combustion characters and the mechanism of oil-consumption economy for diesel engines using water-blended oil. Fuel Processing Technology: vol 72, pp 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Weingartner E, Burtscher H and Baltensperger U (1997) Hygroscopic properties of carbon and diesel soot particles. Atmospheric Environment: vol 31: pp 2311–2327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Lombaert
    • 1
  • L. Le Moyne
    • 1
  • P. Guibert
    • 1
  • J. Tardieu de Maleissye
    • 1
  • J. Amouroux
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Mécanique physiqueCNRS — UMR 7068Saint Cyr l’EcoleFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés Plasma et de Traitement de SurfaceENSCPParisFrance

Personalised recommendations