Fox genes encode a remarkably conserved family of nuclear proteins that can act as transcriptional activators or repressors. Their high level of conservation is probably due to the critical roles they play in embryonic pattern formation and tissue-specific gene expression (Dirksen and Jamrich 1992; Sasaki and Hogan 1993; Hatini et al. 1994; Dirksen and Jamrich 1995; Kaufmann and Knöchel 1996; Martinez et al. 1997; Kenyon et al. 1999; Brownell et al. 2000; Carlsson and Mahlapuu 2002). Fox genes encode proteins that contain a highly conserved 110 amino acid long DNA-binding domain that was originally described in the Drosophila mutant fork head (Lai et al. 1990; Weigel and Jackie 1990). Because of this, they were called the forkhead genes. The structure of these proteins resembles a winged helix, and because of their structure, they are also referred to as winged helix proteins (Clark et al. 1993). Eventually, a unified nomenclature was established, and currently these genes are called Fox genes (Kaestner et al. 2000).
KeywordsNeural Crest Cell Neural Plate Xenopus Embryo Lateral Plate Mesoderm Presomitic Mesoderm
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Furumoto TA, Miura N, Akasaka T, Mizutani-Koseki Y, Sudo H, Fukuda K, Maekawa M, Yuasa S, Fu Y, Moriya H et al (1999) Notochord-dependent expression of MFH1 and PAX1 cooperates to maintain the proliferation of sclerotome cells during the vertebral column development. Dev Biol 210: 15–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hellqvist M, Mahlapuu M, Samuelsson L, Enerback S, Carlsson P (1996) Differential activation of lung-specific genes by two forkhead proteins, FREAC-1 and FREAC-2. J Biol Chem 271: 44824490Google Scholar
- Kume T, Deng K, Hogan BL (2000) Murine forkhead/winged helix genes Foxcl (Mfl) and Foxc2 ( Mfhl) are required for the early organogenesis of the kidney and urinary tract. Development 127: 1387–1395Google Scholar
- Marnellos G, Deblandre GA, Mjolsness E, Kintner C (2000) Delta-Notch lateral inhibitory patterning in the emergence of ciliated cells in Xenopus: experimental observations and a gene network model. Pac Symp Biocomput, pp 329–340Google Scholar
- Ruiz i Altaba A, lessen TM (1992) Pintallavis, a gene expressed in the organizer and midline cells of frog embryos: involvement in the development of the neural axis. Development 116: 81–93Google Scholar
- Spemann H, Mangold H (1924) Ueber Induktion von Embryonalanlagen durch Implantation artfremder Organisatoren. Wilhelm Roux’s Arch Entwicklungsmech Org 100: 599–638Google Scholar
- Watanabe M, Whitman M (1999b) The role of transcription factors involved in TGFbeta superfamily signaling during development. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 45: 537–543Google Scholar