Glycoproteins of Aspergillus Species

  • Veronica M. Hearn
  • Eliana Barreto-Bergter
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 12)

Abstract

Aspergillus species are among the most common causal agents of the deep mycoses in the developed world. They have been implicated as etiological agents of several lung diseases including allergic asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis (IA). Over 90% of all cases of Aspergillus-related diseases are caused by A. fumigatus (Denning 1998). Glycoproteins identified from the aspergilli have become increasingly important for their implications with respect to the different types of disease resulting from colonization and invasion with various species of this genus.

Keywords

Sugar Fermentation Carbohydrate Lipase Cellulase 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams DJ, Causier BE, Mellor KJ, Keer V, Milling W, Dada J (1993) Regulation of chitin synthase and chitinase in fungi. In: Chitin Enzymology. Muzzarelli RAA (ed) European Chitin Society, Ancona, Italy, pp 15–25Google Scholar
  2. Almeida IC, Neville DC, Mehlert A, Treumann A, Ferguson MA, Previato JO, Travassos LR (1996) Structure of the N-linked oligosaccharide of the main diagnostic antigen of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Glycobiology 6:507–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archer DB (2000) Filamentous fungi as microbial cell factories for food use. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11:478–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Archer DB, Peberdy JF (1997) The molecular biology of secreted enzyme production by fungi. Crit Rev Biotechnol 17:273–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banerjee B, Madan T, Sharma GL, Prasad HK, Nath I, Sarma PU (1995) Characterization of glycoprotein antigen (45kD) of Aspergillus fumigatus. Serodiagn Immunother Infect Dis 7:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banerjee B, Greenberger PA, Fink JN, Kurup VP (1998) Immunological characterization of Aspf2, a major allergen from Aspergillus fumigatus associated with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Infect Immun 66:5175–5182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Banerjee B, Greenberger PA, Fink JN, Kurup VP (1999) Conformational and linear B-cell epitopes of Aspf2, a major allergen of Aspergillus fumigatus, bind differently to immunoglobulin E antibody in the sera of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis patients. Infect Immun 67:2284–2291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bardalaye PC, Nordin JH (1977) Chemical structure of the galactomannan from the cell wall of Aspergillus niger. J Biol Chem 252:2584–2591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barreto-Bergter E, Travassos LR, Gorin PAJ (1980) Chemical structure of the D-galacto-D-mannan component from hyphae of Aspergillus niger and other Aspergillus spp. Carbohydr Res 86:273–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barreto-Bergter E, Gorin PAJ, Travassos LR (1981) Cell constituents of mycelia and conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus. Carbohydr Res 95:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beachey EH (1981) Bacterial adherence: adhesin-receptor interactions mediating the attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces. J Infect Dis 143:325–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beauvais A, Monod M, Debeaupuis JP, Diaquin M, Kobayashi H, Latge JP (1997a) Biochemical and enzymatic characterization of a new dipeptidyl-peptidase isolated from Aspergillus fumigatus. J Biol Chem 272: 6238–6244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beauvais A, Monod M, Wyniger J, Debeaupuis JP, Grouzmann E, Brakch N, Svab J, Hovanessian AG, Latge JP (1997b) Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungus pathogenic to humans. Infect Immun 65:3042–3047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bennett JE, Bhattacharjee AK, Glaudemans CPJ (1985) Galactofuranosyl groups are immunodominant in Aspergillus fumigatus galactomannan. Mol Immunol 22:251–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouchara JP, Sanchez M, Esnault K, Tronchin G (1999) Interaction between Aspergillus fumigatus and host matrix proteins. Contrib Microbiol 2:167–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brzozowski AM, Davies GJ (1997) Structure of A. oryzae aamylase complexed with the inhibitor acarbose at 2.0 A resolution. Biochemistry 36:10837–10845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bull AT (1970) Inhibition of polysaccharases by melanin: enzyme inhibition in relation to mycolysis. Arch Biochem Biophys 137:345–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cabral CM, Liu Y, Sifers RN (2001) Dissecting glycoprotein quality control in the secretory pathway. Trends in Biochem Sci 26:619–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calera JA, Overjero MC, Lopez-Medrano R, Segurado M, Puente P, Leal F (1997a) Characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans aspndl gene demonstrates that the ASPND1 antigen which it encodes, and several Aspergillus fumigatus immunodominant antigens belong to the same family. Infect Immun 65: 1335–1344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Calera JA, Paris S, Monod M, Hamilton AJ, Debeaupuis JP, Diaquin M, Lopez-Medrano R, Leal F, Latge JP (1997b) Cloning and disruption of the antigenic catalase gene of Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect Immun 65:4718–4724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Calera JA, Overjero MC, Lopez-Medrano R, Lopez-Aragon R, Puente P, Leal F (1998) The recombinant antigen ASPND1r from Aspergillus nidulans is specifically recognized by sera from patients with aspergilloma. Microbiology 144:561–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Calera JA, Sanchez-Weatherby J, Lopez-Medrano R, Leal F (2000) Distinctive properties of the catalase B of Aspergillus nidulans. FEBS Lett 475:117–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen J-S, Saxton J, Hemming FW, Peberdy JF (1996) Purification and partial characterization of the high and low molecular weight form (S- and F-form) of invertase secreted by Aspergillus nidulans. Biochim Biophys Acta 1296:207–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chiba Y, Yamagata Y, Iijima S, Nakajima T, Ichishima E (1993) The carbohydrate moiety of the acid carboxypeptidase from Aspergillus saitoi. Curr Microbiol 27:281–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Christensen T (1994) Application: Aspergillus oryzae as a host for production of industrial enzymes. In: Powell KA, Renwick A, Peberdy JF (eds) The genus Aspergillus. From taxonomy and genetics to industrial application, FEMS Symp No. 69. Plenum Press, New York, NY, pp 251–259Google Scholar
  26. Coutinho PM, Reilly PJ (1997) Glucoamylase structural, functional, and evolutionary relationships. Proteins 29:334–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crameri R (1998) Recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergens: from the nucleotide sequences to clinical applications. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 115:99–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cutler JE (2001) N-glycosylation of yeast, with emphasis on Candida albicans. Med Mycol 39(Suppl 1):75–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Davidson DJ, Castellino FJ (1991) Asparagine-linked oligosaccharide processing in lepidopteran insect cells. Temporal dependence of the nature of the oligosaccharides assembled on asparagine-289 of recombi- nant human plasminogen produced in baculovirus vector infected Spodoptera frugiperda (IPLB-SF21AE) cells. Biochemistry 30:6167–6174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. de Lederkremer RM, Colli W (1995) Galactofuranosecontaining glycoconjugates in trypanosomatids. Glycobiology 5:547–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Denning DW (1998) Invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 26:781–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. DeVries RP, van den Broeck HC, Dekkers E, Manzanares P, deGraaff LH, Visser J (1999) Differential expression of three alpha-galactosidase genes and a single beta-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus niger. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:2453–2460Google Scholar
  33. Eder J, Fersht AR (1995) Pro-sequence-assisted protein folding. Mol Microbiol 139:609–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ernst JF, Prill S K-H (2001) O-glycosylation. Med Mycol 39(Suppl 1):67–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Escott GM (1997) The chitinases of pathogenic fungi as targets for diagnostic probes and antifungal drugs. PhD Thesis, University of Leeds, UKGoogle Scholar
  36. Escott GM, Hearn VM, Adams DJ (1998) Inducible chitinolytic system of Aspergillus fumigatus. Microbiology 144:1575–1581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fontaine T, Hartland RP, Beauvais A, Diaquin M, Latge JP (1997a) Purification and characterization of an endo-1,3-glucanase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Eur J Biochem 243:315–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fontaine T, Hartland RP, Diaquin M, Simenel C, Latge JP (1997b) Differential patterns of activity displayed by two exo-ß-1,3-glucanases associated with the Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall. J Bacteriol 179: 3154–3163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fontaine T, Simenel C, Dubreucq G, Adam O, Delepierre M, Lemoine J, Vorgias CE, Diaquin M, Latge JP (2000) Molecular organization of the alkali-insoluble fraction of Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall. J Biol Chem 275:27594–27607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fowler T, Rey MW, Vaha-Vahe P, Power SD, Berka RM (1993) The catR gene encoding a catalase from Aspergillus niger: primary structure and elevated expression through increased gene copy number and use of a strong promoter. Mol Microbiol 9:989–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fratamico PM, Buckley HR (1991) Identification and characterization of an immunodominant 58-kilodalton antigen of Aspergillus fumigatus recognized by sera of patients with invasive aspergillosis. Infect Immun 59:309–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fujiwara M, Ichinomiya M, Motoyama T, Horiuchi H, Ohta A, Takagi M (2000) Evidence that the Aspergillus nidulans class I and class II chitin synthase genes, chsC and chsA, share critical roles in hyphal wall integrity and conidiophore development. J Biochem (Tokyo) 127:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gentzsch M, Tanner W (1996) The PMT gene family: protein O-glycosylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is vital. EMBO J 15:5752–5759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gil ML, Penalver MC, Lopez-Ribot JL, O’Connor JE, Martinez JP (1996) Binding of extracellular matrix proteins to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Infect Immun 64:5239–5247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Glee PM, Cutler JE, Benson EE, Bargatze RF, Hazen KC (2001) Inhibition of hydrophobic protein mediated Candida albicans attachment to endothelial cells during physiologic shear flow. Infect Immun 69:2815–2820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goochee CF, Monica T (1990) Environmental effects on protein glycosylation. Biotechnology 8:421–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gooday GW (1977) Biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall — mechanisms and implications. J Gen Microbiol 99: 1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gooday GW (1995) Cell Walls. In: Gow NAR, Gadd GM (eds) The growing fungus. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 43–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gooday GW, Zhu W-Y, O’Donnell RW (1992) What are the roles of chitinases in the growing fungus? FEMS Microbiol Lett 100:387–392Google Scholar
  50. Grueninger-Leitch F, D’Arcy A, D’Arcy B, Chene C (1996) Deglycosylation of proteins for crystallization using recombinant fusion protein glycosidases. Protein Sci 5:2617–2622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Haido RMT, Silva MH, Ejzemberg R, Leitao EA, Hearn VM, Evans EGV, Barreto-Bergter (1998) Analysis of peptidogalactomannans from the mycelial surface Aspergillus fumigatus. Med Mycol 36:313–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hansen MY, Wold JK, Paulsen BS, Cohen EH, Karlsson-Borga A (1994) Allergens in Aspergillus fumigatus I characterization of two different allergen extracts and evaluation of their stability and the importance of carbohydrate for IgE binding. Allergy 49:235–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hanski C, Huhle T, Gossrau R, Reutter W (1988) Direct evidence for the binding of rat liver DPP IV to collagen in vitro. Exp Cell Res 178:64–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harrison MJ, Nouwens AS, Jardine DR, Zachara NE, Gooley AA, Nevalainen H, Packer NH (1998) Modified glycosylation of cellobio hydrolase I from a high cellulaseproducing mutant strain of Trichoderma reesei. Eur J Biochem 256:119–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hart GW (1992) Glycosylation. Curr Opin Cell Biol 4:1017–1023PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hartland RP, Fontaine T, Debeaupuis JP, Simenel C, Delepierre M, Latge JP (1996) A novel ß3-(1–3)glucanosyltransferase from the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus. J Biol Chem 271:26843–26849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Haynes KA, Tuinstra P, Hughes TA, Wijnands LM, Rogers TR, Allen AK (1996) Purification and characterization of a 93 kDa Aspergillus fumigatus antigen with diagnostic potential. J Med Vet Mycol 34:421–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hearn VM (1992) Antigenicity of Aspergillus species. J Med Vet Mycol 30:11–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hearn VM, Pinel C, Blachier S, Ambroise-Thomas P, Grillot R (1995) Specific antibody detection in invasive aspergillosis by analytical isoelectrofocusing and immunoblotting methods. J Clin Microbiol 33:982–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hearn VM, Escott GM, Evans EGV, Adams DJ (1998) Complex chitinolytic system of Aspergillus fumigatus. Microbios 93:85–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jars MU, Osborn S, Forstrom J, MacKay VL (1995) N- and O- glycosylation and phosphorylation of the bar secretion leader derived from the barrier protease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 270: 24810–24817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jeenes DJ, MacKenzie DA, Roberts IN, Archer DB (1991) Heterologous protein production by filamentous fungi. Biotechnol Genet Eng Revs 9:327–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jentoft N (1990) Why are proteins O-glycosylated? Trends Biochem Sci 15:291–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kalisz HM, Hecht H-J, Schonburg D, Schmid RD (1991) Effects of carbohydrate depletion on the structure, stability and activity of glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. Biochim Biophys Acta 1080:138–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kapteyn JC, Van Den Ende H, Klis FM (1999) The contribution of cell wall proteins to the organization of the yeast cell wall. Biochim Biophys Acta 1426:373–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kawasaki L, Aguirre J (2001) Multiple catalase genes are differentially regulated in Aspergillus nidulans. J Bacteriol 183:1434–1440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kawata Y, Nosaka K, Hongo K, Mizobata T, Nagai J (1994) Chaperonin GroE and ADP facilitate the folding of various proteins and protect against heat inactivation. FEBS Letts 345:229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kikuchi-Torii K, Hayashi S, Nakamoto H, Nakamura S (1982) Properties of Aspergillus niger catalase. J Biochem 92:1449–1456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Klis FM, De Groot P, Hellingwerf K (2001) Molecular mechanisms of fungal cell wall biogenesis Med Mycol 39(Suppl 1):1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kobayashi H, Debeaupuis JP, Bouchara JP, Latge JP (1993) An 88-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect Immun 61:4767–4771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kos A, Kuijvenhoven J, Wernars K, Bos CJ, Van den Brock HWJ, Pouwels PH, Van den Hondel CAMJJ (1985) Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus niger trpC gene. Gene 39:231–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kumar A, Reddy LV, Sochanik A, Kurup VP (1993) Isolation and characterization of a recombinant heat shock protein of Aspergillus fumigatus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91:1024–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kuranda MJ, Robbins PW (1991) Chitinase is required for cell separation during growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 266:19758–19767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kurup VP, Kumar A (1991) Immunodiagnosis of aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 4:439–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kurup VP, Banerjee B (2000) Fungal allergens and peptide epitopes. Peptides 21:589–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kurup VP, Greenberger PA, Fink JN (1989) Antibody response to low-molecular-weight antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 27:1312–1316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE (1992) Medical mycology. Lea and Febiger, Baltimore, pp 201–247Google Scholar
  78. Laine RA (1994) A calculation of all possible oligosaccharide isomers both branched and linear yields 1.05–1012 structures for a reducing hexasaccharide: the isomer barrier to development of single-method saccharide sequencing or synthesis systems. Glycobiology 4:759–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Latge JP (1995) Tools and trends in the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus. Curr Topics Med Mycol 6: 245–281Google Scholar
  80. Latge JP (1999) Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Revs 12:310–350Google Scholar
  81. Latge JP, Moutaouakil M, Debeaupuis JP, Bouchara JP, Haynes K, Prevost MC (1991) The 18-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect Immun 59:2586–2594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Latge JP, Kobayashi H, Debeaupuis JP, Diaquin M, Sarfati J, Wieruszeski J-M, Parra E, Bouchara JP, Fournet B (1994) Chemical and immunological characterization of the extracellular galactomannan of Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect Immun 62:5424–5433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Levery SB, Toledo MS, Salyan MEK, Hakomori SI, Straus AH, Takahashi HK (1998) Structure elucidation of sphingolipids from the mycopathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: an immunodominant galactofuranose residue is carried by a novel glycosyinositol phosphorylceramide antigen. Biochemistry 37:8764–8775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Little AS, Warner JO (1996) Improved diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with gp66 (formerly antigen 7) of Aspergillus fumigatus for specific IgE detection. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:55–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lopez-Medrano R, Ovejero MC, Calera JÁ, Puente P, Leal F (1995a) An immunodominant 90-kilodalton Aspergillus fumigatus antigen is the sub-unit of a catalase. Infect Immun 63:4774–4780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lopez-Medrano R, Ovejero MC, Calera JÁ, Puente P, Leal F (1995b) Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. Microbiology 141:2699–2704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lopez-Medrano R, Ovejero MC, Calera JÁ, Puente P, Leal F (1996) Immunoblotting patterns in the serodiagnosis of aspergilloma: antibody response to the 90 kDa Aspergillus fumigatus antigen. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15:146–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lopez-Ribot JL, Martinez JP, Monteagudo C, Alloush HM, Mattioli NV, Chaffin WL (1999) Evidence for the presence of complex carbohydrates in Candida albicans cell wall glycoproteins. Rev Iberoam Micol 16:23–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. MacKenzie DA, Jeenes DJ, Belshaw NJ, Archer DB (1993) Regulation of secreted protein production by filamentous fungi: recent developments and perspectives. J Gen Microbiol 139:2295–2307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Madan T, Banerjee B, Bhatnagar PK, Shah A, Sarma PU (1997a) Identification of 45-kD antigen in immune complexes of patients of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Mol Cell Biochem 166:111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Madan T, Kishore U, Shah A, Eggleton P, Strong P, Wang JY, Aggrawal SS (1997b) Lung surfactant proteins A and D can inhibit specific IgE binding to the allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus and block allergen-induced histamine release from human basophils. Clin Exp Immunol 110:241–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Madan T, Kishore U, Singh H, Strong P, Clark H, Hussain EH, Reid KB, Sarma PU (2001) Surfactant proteins A and D protect mice against Aspergillus fumigatus antigens and allergens. J Clin Invest 107:467–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Maertens J, Verhaegen J, Lagrou K, Van Eldere J, Boogaerts M (2001) Screening for circulating galactomannan as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis in prolonged neutropenic patients and stem cell transplantation recipients: a prospective validation. Blood 97:1604–1610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Manzanares P, deGraaff LH, Visser J (1998) Characterization of galactosidases from Aspergillus niger: purification of a novel α-galactosidase. Enzyme Microbiol Technol 22:383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Maras M, Saelens X, LaRoy W, Piens K, Claeyssens M, Fiers W, Contreras R (1997) In vitro conversion of the carbohydrate moiety of fungal glycoproteins to mammalian-type oligosaccharides. Eur J Biochem 249:701–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Maras M, van Die I, Contreras R, van den Hondel CAMJJ (1999) Filamentous fungi as production organisms for glycoproteins of bio-medical interest. Glycoconjugate J 16:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Melcher B, Muller M, Muller H, Meussdoerffer F, Wolf DH (1982) In vivo biosynthesis of the vacuolar proteinases A and B in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 257:11203–11206Google Scholar
  98. Mellado E, Aufauvre-Brown A, Specht CA, Robbins PW, Holden DW (1995) A multigene family related to chitin synthase genes of yeast in the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Mol Gen Genet 246:353–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mellado E, Aufauvre-Brown A, Gow NAR, Holden DW (1996) The Aspergillus fumigatus chsC and chsG genes encode class III chitin synthases with different functions. Mol Microbiol 20:667–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mendes-Giannini MIS, Taylor ML, Bouchara JP, Burger E, Calish VLG, Escalante ED, Hanna SA, Lenz HL, Machado MP, Miyaji M, Da Silva JLM, Mota EM, Restrepo A, Restrepo S, Tronchin G, Vincenzi LR, Xldieh CF, Zenteno E (2000) Pathogenesis II: Fungal responses to host responses: interaction of host cells with fungi. Med Mycol 38(Suppl 1):113–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Moser M, Crameri R, Brust E, Suter M, Menz G (1994) Diagnostic value of recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergen I/a for skin testing and serology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mouyna I, Hartland RP, Fontaine T, Diaquin M, Simenel C, Delepierre M, Henrissat B, Latge JP (1998) A 1,34ßglucanosyltransferase isolated from the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus is a homologue of the yeast Bg12p. Microbiology 144:3171–3180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mouyna I, Fontaine T, Vai M, Monod M, Fonzi WA, Diaquin M, Popolo L, Hartland RP, Latge JP (2000) Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glucanosyl-transferases play an active role in the biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall. J Biol Chem 275:14882–14889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Munro CA, Gow NAR (2001) Fungal ß (1,3)-D-glucan synthesis. Med Mycol 39(Suppl 1):41–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Nakajima T, Ichishima E (1994) Chemical structure of the galactomannan moiety in the cell wall glycoprotein of Aspergillus oryzae. J Fermentation Bioeng 78:472–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nakao Y, Kozutsumi Y, Funakoshi I, Kawasaki T, Yamashina I, Mutsaers JHGM, Van Halbeek H, Vliegenthart JFG (1987) Structures of oligosaccharides on ß-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae. J Biochem 102:171–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Namboodiri VM, Chattopadhyaya R (2000) Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable lipase from Aspergillus niger. Lipids 35:495–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nimtz M, Conradt HS (1991) Oligosaccharide structures of glycoproteins from recombinant mammalian cell lines. In: Conradt HS (ed) Protein glycosylation: cellular, biotechnological and analytical aspects, GBF Monographs vol 15. VCH, Weinheim, Germany, pp 235–248Google Scholar
  109. Noventa-Jordao MA, Couto RM, Goldman MH, Aguirre J, Iyer S, Caplan A, Tarenzi HF, Goldman GH (1999) Catalase activity is necessary for heat shock recovery in Aspergillus nidulans germlings. Microbiology 145: 3229–3234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ono K, Shintani K, Shigita S, Oka S (1988) Various molecular species in glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger. Agric Biol Chem 52:1689–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Opdenakker G, Rudd PM, Ponting CP, Dwek RA (1993) Concepts and principles of glycobiology. FASEB J 7:1330–1337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Panchal T, Wodzinski RJ (1998) Comparison of glycosylation patterns of phytase from Aspergillus niger (A. ficuum) NRRL 3135 and recombinant phytase. Prep Biochem Biotechnol 28:201–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Parodi AJ (2000) Protein glycosylation and its role in protein folding. Annu Rev Biochem 69:69–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pazur JH, Tominaga Y, Forsberg LS, Simpson DL (1980) Glycoenzymes: an unusual type of glycoprotein structure for a glucoamylase. Carbohydr Res 84:103–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Penalver MC, Casanova M, Martinez JP, Gil ML (1996) Cell wall protein and glycoprotein constituents of Aspergillus fumigatus that bind to polystyrene may be responsible for the cell surface hydrophobicity of the mycelium. Microbiology 142:1597–1604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Piechura JE, Huang CJ, Cohen SH, Kidd JM, Kurup VP (1983) Antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus. II Electrophoretic and clinical studies. Immunology 49: 657–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Piechura JE, Rieffel RS, Daft LJ (1987) Electrophoretic and serological analyses of cytoplasmic antigens from Aspergillus fumigatus during growth of conidia to mature mycelia. J Med Vet Mycol 25:243–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Piechura JE, Kurup VP, Daft LJ (1990) Isolation and immunological characterization of fractions from membranes of Aspergillus fumigatus with protease activity. Can J Microbiol 36:33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Popolo L, Vai M (1999) The Gas 1 glycoprotein, a putative wall polymer cross-linker. Biochim Biophys Acta 1426: 385–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Punt PJ, van Gemeren IA, Drint-Kuyvenhoven J, Hessing JGM, van Muijlwijk-Harteveld GM, Beijersbergen A, Verrips CT, van den Hondel CAMJJ (1998) Analysis of the role of the gene bipA, encoding the major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein in the secretion of homologous and heterologous proteins in black Aspergilli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 50:447–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Reichard U (1998) The significance of secretory and structure-associated proteases of Aspergillus fumigatus for the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis. Mycoses 41(Suppl 1):78–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Reichard U, Monod M, Ruchel R (1996) Expression pattern of aspartic proteinase antigens in aspergilli. Mycoses 39:99–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Reichard U, Cole GT, Ruchel R, Monod M (2000a) Molecular cloning and targeted deletion of PEP2 which encodes a novel aspartic proteinase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Int J Med Microbiol 2290:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Reichard U, Cole GT, Hill TW, Ruchel R, Monod M (2000b) Molecular characterization and influence on fungal development of ALP 2, a novel serine proteinase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Int J Med Microbiol 549–558Google Scholar
  125. Rodrigues ML, Rozental S, Couceiro JN, Angluster J, Alviano CS, Travassos LR (1997) Identification of Nacetylneuraminic acid and its 9-O-acetylated derivative on the cell surface of Cryptococcus neoformans: influence on fungal phagocytosis. Infect Immun 65:4937–4942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Roseman S (2001) Reflections on glycobiology. J Biol Chem 276:41527–41542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rosenthal AL, Nordin JH (1975) The carbohydrate constitution of mycodextranase, an endo-alpha (1 yields 4)D-glucanase from Penicillium melinii. J Biol Chem 250:5295–5303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Ruchel R (1999) Proteinases of pathogenic fungi. Mycoses 42(Suppl 1):48–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rudick MJ, Elbein AD (1973) Glycoprotein enzymes secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus. Purification and properties of ß-glucosidase. J Biol Chem 248: 6506–6513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Rudick MJ, Elbein AD (1975) Glycoprotein enzymes secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus: purification and properties of a second beta-glucosidase. J Bacteriol 124:534–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Samuelsen H, Karlsson-Borga A, Paulsen BS, Wold JK, Rolfsen W (1991) Purification of a 20-kD allergen from Aspergillus fumigatus. Allergy 46:115–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sander I, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Siethoff C, Lohaus C, Meyer HE, Baur X (1998) Allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: Identification of 3xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:256–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sarfati J, Boucias DG, Latge JP (1995) Antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus produced in vivo. J Med Vet Mycol 33:9–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sarthy AV, McGonigal T, Coen H, Frost DJ, Muelbroek JÁ, Goldman RC (1997) Phenotypin Candida albicans of a disruption of the BGL2 gene encoding a 1, betaglucosyltransferase. Microbiology 143:367–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Segurado M, Lopez-Aragon R, Calera JA, Fernandez Abalos JM, Leal F (1999) Zinc-regulated biosynthesis of immunodominant antigens from Aspergillus species. Infect Immun 67:2377–2382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Selvakumar P, Ashakumary L, Helen A, Pandey A (1996) Purification and characterization of glucoamylase produced by Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation. Lett in Appl Microbiol 23:403–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sentandreu M, Elorza MV, Sentandreu R, Fonzi WA (1998) Cloning and characterization of PRA1, a gene encoding a novel pH-regulated antigen of Candida albicans. J Bacteriol 180:282–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Shen HD, Tam MF, Chou H, Han SH (1999) The importance of serine proteinases as aeroallergens associated with asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 119:259–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Shen HD, Lin WL, Tam MF, Chou H, Wang CW, Tsai JJ, Wang SR, Han SH (2001) Identification of vacuolar serine proteinases as a major allergen of Aspergillus fumigatus by immunoblotting and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. Clin Exp Allergy 31: 295–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Soares RM, de A Soares RM, Alviano DS, Angluster J, Alviano CS, Travassos LR (2000) Identification of sialic acids on the cell surface of Candida albicans. Biochim Biophys Acta 1474:262–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Spiro RG (2000) Glucose residues as key determinants in the biosynthesis and quality control of glycoproteins with N-linked oligosaccharides. J Biol Chem 275: 35657–35660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Strahl-Bolsinger S, Gentzsch M, Tanner W (1999) Protein O-mannosylation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1426: 297–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sturtevant J, Latge JP (1992) Interactions between conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus and human complement component C3. Infect Immun 60:1913–1918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Suzuki T, Kitajima K, Inoue S, Inoue Y (1995) N-glycosylation/deglycosylation as a mechanism for the posttranslational modification/remodification of proteins. Glycoconjugate J 12:183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Svensson B, Larsen K, Svendsen I, Boel E (1983) The complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein glucoamylase G1 from Aspergillus niger. Carlsberg Res Commun 48:529–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Takasuka T, Sayers NM, Anderson MJ, Benbow EW, Denning DW (1999) Aspergillus fumigatus catalases: cloning of an Aspergillus nidulans catalase B homologue and evidence for at least three catalases. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 23:125–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Takayanagi T, Kushida K, Idonuma K, Ajisaka K (1992) Novel N-linked oligo-mannose type oligosaccharides containing an a-D-galactofuranosyl linkage found in α-D-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger. Glycoconjugate J 9:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Takayanagi T, Kimura A, Chiba S, Ajisaka K (1994) Novel structures of N-linked high-mannose type oligosaccharides containing α-D-galactofuranosyl linkages in Aspergillus niger α-D-glucosidase. Carbohydr Res 256:149–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Takegawa K, Fujiwara K, Iwahara S, Yamamoto K, Tochikura T (1989) Effect of deglycosylation of N-linked sugar chains on glucose oxidase of Aspergillus niger. Biochem Cell Biol 67:460–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tang B, Banerjee B, Greenberger PA, Fink JN, Kelly KJ, Kurup VP (2000) Antibody binding of deletion mutants of Aspf2, the major Aspergillus fumigatus allergen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 270: 1128–1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Teshima R, Ikebuchi H, Sawada J-I, Miyachi S, Kitani S, Iwama M, Irie M, Ichinoe M, Terao T (1993) Isolation and characterization of a major allergenic component (gp55) of Aspergillus fumigatus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 92:698–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Thau N, Monod M, Crestani B, Rolland C, Tronchin G, Latge JP, Paris S (1994) rodletless mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect Immun 62:4380–4388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Tischer CA, Gorin PAJ, de Souza MB, Barreto-Bergter E (2002) Structures of phosphono-galactomannans isolated from mycelia of Aspergillus versicolor. Carbohydr Polymers 49:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tronchin G, Esnault K, Renier G, Filmon R, Chabasse D, Bouchara JP (1997) Expression and identification of a laminin-binding protein in Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Infect Immun 65:9–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Ullah AHJ, Cummins BJ (1987) Purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence and characterization of pH2.5 optimum acid phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.2) from Aspergillus ficuum. Prep Biochem 17:397–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. van Gemeren IA, Punt PJ, Drint-Kuyvenhoven A, Brockhuijsen MP, van’t Hoog A, Beijersbergen A, Verrips CT, van den Hondel CAMJJ (1997) The ER chaperone encoding bipA gene of black Aspergilli is induced by heat shock and unfolded proteins. Gene 198:43–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Vervecken W, Van Passel M, Callewaert N, Geysens S, Maras M, Visser J, Contreras R (2001) Modification of the N-glycosylation pathway of Aspergillus niger by heterologous expression of α-1,2-mannosidase and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I. Glycoconjugate J 18(1/2):70Google Scholar
  158. Wallis GLF, Hemming FW, Peberdy JF (1997) Secretion of two ß-fructofuranosidases by Aspergillus niger growing in sucrose. Arch Biochem Biophys 345:214–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wallis GLF, Hemming FW, Peberdy JF (1999a) Investigation of the glycosyltransferase enzymes involved in the initial stages of the N-linked protein glycosylation pathway in Aspergillus niger. Biochim Biophys Acta 1426:91–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wallis GLF, Swift RJ, Hemming FW, Trinci APJ, Peberdy JF (1999b) Glucoamylase overexpression and secretion in Aspergillus niger: analysis of glycosylation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1472:576–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wallis GLF, Easton RL, Jolly K, Hemming FW, Peberdy JF (2001a) Galactofuranoic-oligomannose N-linked glycans of a-galactosidase A from Aspergillus niger. Eur J Biochem 268:4134–4143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wallis GLF, Hemming FW, Peberdy JF (2001b) An extracellular ß-galactofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger and its use as a tool for glycoconjugate analysis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1525:19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wallis GLF, Hemming FW, Peberdy JF (2001c) ß-galactofuranoside glycoconjugates on conidia and conidiophores of Aspergillus niger. FEMS Microbiol Letts 201:21–27Google Scholar
  164. Wang C, Eufemi M, Turano C, Giartosio A (1996) Influence of the carbohydrate moiety on the stability of glycoproteins. Biochemistry 35:7299–7307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wasserman BP, Hultin HO (1981) Effect of deglycosylation on the stability of Aspergillus niger catalase. Arch Biochem Biophys 212:385–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wasylnka JÁ, Simmer MI, Moore MM (2001) Differences in sialic acid density in pathogenic and non-pathogenic Aspergillus species. Microbiology 147:869–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Williamson G, Belshaw NJ, Noel TR, Ring SG, Williamson MP (1992a) O-glycosylation and stability. Unfolding of glucoamylase induced by heat and guanidine hydrochloride. Eur J Biochem 207:661–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Williamson G, Belshaw NJ, Williamson MP (1992b) O-glycosylation in Aspergillus glucoamylase. Conformation and role in binding. Biochem J 282:423–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Witteveen CFB, Veenhuis M, Visser J (1992) Localization of glucose oxidase and catalase activities in Aspergillus niger. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1190–1194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Wosten HAB, Monkha SM, Sietsma JH, Wessels JGH (1991) Localization of growth and secretion of proteins in Aspergillus niger. J Gen Microbiol 137:2017–2023PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Yu C-J, Chiou S-H, Lai W-Y, Chiang B-L, Chow L-P (1999) Characterization of a novel allergen, a major IgE-binding protein from Aspergillus flavus, as an alkaline serine protease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 261: 669–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Yuen K-Y, Chan C-M, Chan K-M, Woo PCY, Che X-Y, Leung ASP, Cao L (2001) Characterization of AFMP1: novel target for serodiagnosis of aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 39:3830–3837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veronica M. Hearn
  • Eliana Barreto-Bergter
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de MicrobiologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations