Advertisement

Discomycetes

  • Donald H. Pfister
  • James W. Kimbrough
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 7A)

Abstract

The Discomycetes are a heterogeneous assemblage of unitunicate Ascomycota that have been characterized by the production of open ascomata, apothecia. Although the apothecial ascomycetes have long been classified as the Discomycetes morphologically, such a classification today serves to segregate these fungi but does not reflect current knowledge of their relationships to one another or to the other members of the Ascomycota. The distinction among groups has been based on morphological and cytological studies and this information has led to a classification scheme that has generally been followed. Molecular phylogenetic studies using DNA sequence data have shown that the orders included here form several distinct and, in some cases, only distantly related lineages. Taking into account recent ideas, the Discomycetes, as treated here, include taxa that typically produce apothecia, but also those with closed ascomata such as the Erysiphales which are included here even though their affinities remain questionable. In all, 13 orders are included: Caliciales, Cyttariales, Erysipales, Gyalectales, Helotiales, Lichinales, Lecanorales, Mediolariales, Neolectales, Ostropales (including Graphidiales), Pezizales, Rhytismatales, and Triblidiales. In certain cases, the distinction between these orders is unclear; in other cases, the orders are heterogeneous and ultimately will need to be revised — a process that is only beginning at this time. These orders are remarkable in their variety of life histories, of ascus and ascomatal structure, and in associations with other organisms. The divide between the classification of lichenized and nonlichenized taxa has begun to narrow, but a complete and comprehensive classification has yet to be articulated.

Keywords

Powdery Mildew Endophytic Fungus Tuber Melanosporum Lichenized Fungus Woronin Body 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angel K, Wicklow DT (1983) Coprophilous fungal communities in semiarid to mesic grasslands. Can J Bot 61: 594–602Google Scholar
  2. Aptroot A, Sipman HJM (1997) Diversity of lichenized fungi in the tropics. In: Hyde KD (ed) Biodiversity of tropical microfungi. Hong Kong University Press, pp 93–106Google Scholar
  3. Aptroot A, Tibell L (1997) Wegea, a new genus of nonlichenized, calicoid ascomycetes in the Arthoneales. Mycotaxon 65: 339–351Google Scholar
  4. Aptroot A, Candoussau F, Verley GJM (1997) Two fungicolous species of Gelatinopsis (Leotiaceae, ascomycetes) from France, with G. septata sp. nov. Nova Hedwigia 64: 155–160Google Scholar
  5. Arpin N (1968) Les carotenoides de discomecetes: essai chimiotaxonomique. PhD Dissertation, University de Lyon, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  6. Baral HO (1987a) Der Apikalapparat der Helotiales. Eine lichtmikroskopische Studie über Arten mit Amyloidring. Z Mykol 53: 119–135Google Scholar
  7. Baral HO (1987b) Lugol’s solution/IKI versus Melzer’s reagent: hemiamyloidity, a universal feature of the ascus wall. Mycotaxon 29: 399–450Google Scholar
  8. Baral HO (1992) Vital versus herbarium taxonomy: morphological differences between living and dead cells of ascomycetes, and their taxonomic implications. Mycotaxon 44: 333–390Google Scholar
  9. Barron L (1993) Lignolytic and cellulolytic fungi as predators and parasites. In: Carroll GC, Wicklow DT (eds) The fungal community, its organization and role in the ecosystem. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 311326Google Scholar
  10. Batra LR (1991) World species of Monilinia (Fungi): their ecology, biosystematics and control. Mycol Mem 16: 1–246Google Scholar
  11. Beckett A (1981) Ascospore formation. In: Turian G, Hohl HR (eds) The fungal spore: morphogenetic controls. Academic Press, New York, pp 107–129Google Scholar
  12. Bell A (1983) Dung fungi, an illustrated guide to coprophilous fungi in New Zealand. Victoria University Press, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  13. Bellemère A (1960) Remarques sur le développement des asques du Shizoxylon berkeleyanum (Dur. et Lev.) Fck. (discomycète inoperculé: Ostropales). C R Acad Sci 251: 2569–2571Google Scholar
  14. Bellemère A (1964) Sur le développement de l’apothécie chez Scleroderris fuliginosa (Fr.) Karst. (Discomycètes Inoperculé). C R Acad Sci 258: 5507–5510Google Scholar
  15. Bellemère A (1967) Contributions à l’étude du développement de l’apothécie chez les discomycètes inoperculés. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 83:393–640, 754–931Google Scholar
  16. Bellemère A (1977) L’appareil apical de l’asque chez quelques discomycètes: étude ultrastructurale comparative. Rev Mycol 41: 233–264Google Scholar
  17. Bellemère A (1994) Asci and ascospores. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 111–126Google Scholar
  18. Bellemère A, Hafellner J (1983) L’appareil apical des asques et la paroi des ascospores du Catolechia wahlenbergii (Ach.) Flotow ex Koerber et de l’Epilichen scabrosus (Ach.) Clem. ex Haf. (Lichens, Lecanorales): étude ultrastructurale. Cryptogam Bryol Lichenol 4: 1–36Google Scholar
  19. Bellemère A, Letrouit-Galinou MA (1981) The lecanoralean ascus: an ultrastructural preliminary study. In: Reynolds DR (ed) Ascomycete systematics: the Luttrellian concept. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 54–70Google Scholar
  20. Bellemère A, Letrouit-Galinou MA (1988) Asci, ascospores, and ascomata. In: Galun M (ed) CRC handbook of lichenology, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 161–179Google Scholar
  21. Bellemère A, Melendez-Howell LM, Chacun H, Malherbe MC (1994) Les asques du Chorioactis geaster (Ascomycetes, Pezizales, Sarcoscyphaceae), leur déhiscence et leurs ascospores: étude ultrastructurale. Nova Hedwigia 58: 49–65Google Scholar
  22. Berthet P (1964a) Essai biotaxinomique sur les discomycètes. Joanny Lorge, LyonGoogle Scholar
  23. Berthet P (1964b) Formes conidiennes de divers discomycètes. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 80: 125–149Google Scholar
  24. Blackwell M, Spatafora JW (1994) Molecular data sets and broad taxon sampling in detecting morphological convergence. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 243–248Google Scholar
  25. Braun U (1987) A monograph of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews). Nova Hedwigia Beih 89: 1–700Google Scholar
  26. Braun U (1995) The powdery mildews (Ersiphales) of Europe. G Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  27. Boudier E (1885) Nouvelle classification naturelle de discomycètes charnus connus généralement sous le nom Pezizes. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 1: 91–120Google Scholar
  28. Candoussau F, Magni J-F, Petrini LE, Barr ME, Petrini 0 (1996) Bambusicolous fungi collected in southwestern France: an annotated list. Mycol HeIv 8: 1120Google Scholar
  29. Cannon PF, Minter DW (1986) The Rhytismataceae of the Indian subcontinent. Mycol Pap 155: 1–123Google Scholar
  30. Cantrell SA, Hanlin RT (1997) Phylogenetic relationships in the family Hyaloscyphaceae inferred from sequences of ITS regions, 5.8S ribosomal DNA and morphological characters. Mycologia 89: 745755Google Scholar
  31. Carbone I, Kohn LM (1993) Ribosomal DNA sequence divergence within internal transcribed spacer 1 of the Sclerotiniaceae. Mycologia 85: 415–427Google Scholar
  32. Carpenter SE (1988) Leotiales, a name to replace Helotiales (Ascomycotina). Mycologia 80: 127–130Google Scholar
  33. Carpenter SE, Trappe JM (1985) Phoenicoid fungi: a proposed term for fungi that fruit after heat treatment of substrates. Mycotaxon 23: 203–206Google Scholar
  34. Carroll GC (1986) The biology of endophytism in plants with particular reference to woody perennials. In: Fokkema NJ, van den Heuvel J (eds) Microbiology of the phyllosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 205–222Google Scholar
  35. Carroll GC, Carroll FE (1978) Studies on the incidence of coniferous needle endophytes in the Pacific Northwest. Can J Bot 56: 3032–3043Google Scholar
  36. Carroll GC, Petrini 0 (1983) Patterns of substrate utilization by some fungal endophytes from coniferous foliage. Mycologia 75: 53–63Google Scholar
  37. Castellano MA, Trappe JM, Maser Z, Maser C (1989) Key to spores of the genera of hypogeous fungi of North Temperate forests with special reference to animal mycophagy. Mad River Press, Eureka, CAGoogle Scholar
  38. Chadefaud M (1942) Etudes d’asques II: Structure et anatomie comparée de l’appareil apical des asques chez divers discomycètes et pyrénomycètes. Rev Mycol 7: 57–88Google Scholar
  39. Chadefaud M (1946) Les asques para-operculés et la position systématique de la pezize Sarcoscypha coccinea Fries ex Jacquin. C R Acad Sci 222: 753–755Google Scholar
  40. Chadefaud M (1973) Les asques et la systematique des ascomycètes. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 89: 127–170Google Scholar
  41. Clauzade G, Diederich P, Roux C (1989) Nelikenigintaj fungoj likenlogaj: ilustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société linnéenne de Provence, Numéro spécial 1. Laborajo de la Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj de San-Marino, Marseille, FranceGoogle Scholar
  42. Cook RTA, Inman AJ, Billings C (1997) Identification and classification of powery mildew anamorphs using light and scanning electron microscopy and host range data. Mycol Res 101: 975–1002Google Scholar
  43. Cooke JC, Barr ME (1964) The taxonomic position of the genus Theleobolus. Mycologia 56: 763–769Google Scholar
  44. Corner EJH (1929a) Studies in the morphology of discomycetes. I. The marginal growth of apothecia. Trans Br Mycol Soc 14: 263–275Google Scholar
  45. Corner EJH (1929b) Studies in the morphology of discomycetes. II. The structure and development of the ascocarp. Trans Br Mycol Soc 14: 275–291Google Scholar
  46. Corner EJH (1930) Studies in the morphology of discomycetes. IV. The evolution of the ascocarp. Trans Br Mycol Soc 15: 121–134Google Scholar
  47. Corner EJH (1931) Studies in the morphology of discomycetes. V. The evolution of the ascocarp (continued). Trans Br Mycol Soc 15: 332–350Google Scholar
  48. Crisci JV, Gamundi IJ, Cabello MN (1988) A cladistic analysis of the genus Cyttaria ( Fungi-Ascomycotina ). Cladistics 4: 279–290Google Scholar
  49. Crouan PL, Crouan HM (1857) Note sur quelques Ascobolus nouveaux et sur une espèce nouvelle de Vibrissea. Ann Sci Nat Bot IV 7: 173–178Google Scholar
  50. Darker GD (1932) The Hypodermataceae of conifers. Contrib Arnold Arbo 1: 1–131Google Scholar
  51. Darker GD (1967) A revision of the genera of the Hypodermataceae. Can J Bot 45: 1399–1444Google Scholar
  52. Davidson RW (1950) Urnula craterium is possibly the perfect stage of Strumella coryneoidea. Mycologia 42: 735–742Google Scholar
  53. Dennis RWG (1978) British Ascomycetes. Cramer, Vaduz, LiechtensteinGoogle Scholar
  54. DePriest PT (1993) Molecular innovations in lichen systematics: the use of ribosmal and intron nucleotide sequences in the Cladonia chlorophaea complex. Bryologist 96: 314–325Google Scholar
  55. Descals E, Webster AJ (1978) Miladina lechithina (Pezizales), the ascigerous state of Actinospora megalospora. Trans Br Mycol Soc 70: 466–472Google Scholar
  56. DiCosmo F, Nag Raj TR, Kendrick WB (1984) A revision of the Phacidiaceae and related anamorphs. Mycotaxon 21: 1–234Google Scholar
  57. Digby S, Goos RD (1987) Morphology, development and taxonomy of Loramyces. Mycologia 79: 821–831Google Scholar
  58. Döbbeler P (1979) Untersuchungen von moosparasitischen Pezizales aus der Verwandtschaft von Octospora. Nova Hedwigia 31: 817–864Google Scholar
  59. Döbbeler P (1993) The infecting structures of Octospora roxheimii (Pezizales). Arnoldia 6: 12–14Google Scholar
  60. Döbbeler P (1996a) Potriphila navicularis gen. et sp. nov. (Ostropales, Ascomycetes), ein bipolar verbreitetes Parasit von Polytrichum alpinium. Nova Hedwigia 62: 61–77Google Scholar
  61. Döbbeler P (1996b) Glospeziza cuneformis (Leotiales, Ascomycetes) ein neuer lamellenbevohner von Polytrichum. Sendtnera 3:103–109Google Scholar
  62. Döbbeler P, Menjivar R (1992) Tres nuevas especies de ascomicetes en hepaticas epffilas de Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 40: 73–81Google Scholar
  63. Döbbeler P, Poelt J (1974) Beiträge zur Kenntnis moosbewohnender Discomyceten I. Die Gattung Bryodiscus. Sven Bot Tidskr 68: 369–376Google Scholar
  64. Donnini D, Bencivenga M, Calandra R, Tanfulli M (1997) Influenza della reazione del substrato sulla micomrizazione di Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. con Tuber melanosporum Vitt. e Sphaerosporella brunnea (A. e S.) Svrcek e Kubicka. Micol Ital 26: 17–22Google Scholar
  65. Drayton FL (1934) The sexual mechanism of Sclerotinia gladioli. Mycologia 26: 46–72Google Scholar
  66. Durand EJ (1990) The classification of the fleshy Pezizineae with reference to the structural characters illustrating the bases of their division into families. Bull Torr Bot Club 27: 463–494Google Scholar
  67. Dyby SD, Kimbrough JW (1987) A comparative ultra-structural study of ascospore ontogeny in selected species of Peziza (Pezizales; Ascomycetes ). Bot Gaz 148: 283–296Google Scholar
  68. Dyer PS, Nicolson P, Lucas JA, Peberdy JF (1996) Tapesia acuformis as a causal agent of eyespot disease of cereals and evidence for a heterothallic mating system using molecular markers. Mycol Res 100: 1219–1226Google Scholar
  69. Eckblad F-E (1968) The genera of the operculate discomycetes: a re-evaluation of their taxonomy, phylogeny and nomenclature. Nytt Mag Bot 15: 1–191Google Scholar
  70. Egger KN (1986) Substrate hydrolysis patterns of post-fire ascomycetes (Pezizales). Mycologia 78: 771–780Google Scholar
  71. Egger KN (1996) Molecular systematics of E-strain mycorrhizal fungi: Wilcoxina and its relationship to Tricharina (Pezizales). Can J Bot 74: 773–779Google Scholar
  72. Egger KN, Sigler L (1993) Relatedness of the ericoid endophytes Scytalidium vaccinii and Hymenoscyphus ericae inferred from analysis of ribosomal DNA. Mycologia 85: 219–230Google Scholar
  73. Eriksson OE (1992) Huangshania verrucosa gen. et sp. nov. (Triblidaceae,Triblidiales ordo nov.), a discomycete on Pinus from China. Syst Ascomyc 11:1–10Google Scholar
  74. Eriksson 0E, Hawksworth DL (1996) Notes on ascomycete systematics — nos 2024–2139. Syst Ascomyc 14: 101–133Google Scholar
  75. Eriksson 0E, Strand A (1995) Relationships of the genera Nephroma, Peltigera and Solorina (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Syst Ascomyc 14: 33–39Google Scholar
  76. Fahselt D (1994) Secondary biochemistry of lichens. Symbiosis 16: 117–165Google Scholar
  77. Fries EM (1822) Systema mycologicum, sistens fungorum ordines, genera, et species, huc usque cognitas, quas ad normam methodi naturalis determinavit, disposuit atque descripsit, vol 2. LundGoogle Scholar
  78. Galloway DJ (1994) Biogeography and ancestry of lichens and other ascomycetes. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 175–184Google Scholar
  79. Galun M, Shomer-Ilan A (1988) Secondary metabolic products. In: Galum M (ed) CRC handbook of lichenology III. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 3–8Google Scholar
  80. Gamundl I (1991) Review of recent advances in the knowl- edge of the Cyttariales. Syst Ascomyc 10: 69–77Google Scholar
  81. Gargas A, Taylor JW (1995) Phylogeny of Discomycetes and early radiation of the apothecial Ascomycotina inferred from SSU rDNA sequence data. Exp Mycol 19: 7–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gargas A, DePriest PT, Grube M, Tehler A (1995) Multiple origins of lichen symbioses in fungi suggested by SSU rDNA phylogeny. Science 268: 1492–1495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gäumann EA (1964) Die Pilze: Grundzüge ihrer Entwicklungsgeschichte und Morphologie, 2te. Auf. Birkhäuser, BaselGoogle Scholar
  84. Gernandt DS, Camacho FJ, Stone JK (1997) Meria laricis,an anamorph of Rhabdocline. Mycologia 89:735744Google Scholar
  85. Gibson JL (1984) Glaziella aurantiaca (Endogonaceae): zygomycete or ascomycete? Mycotaxon 20:325328Google Scholar
  86. Gibson JL, Kimbrough JW, Benny GL (1986) Ultrastructural observations on Endogonaceae (Zygomycetes). II. Glaziellales ord. nov. and Glaziellaceae fam. nov.: new taxa based upon light and electron microscopic observations of Glaziella aurantiaca. Mycologia 78: 941–954Google Scholar
  87. Gordon CC (1966) Ascocarpic centrum ontogeny of species of Hypodermataceae of conifers. Am J Bot 53: 319–327Google Scholar
  88. Gordon CC (1968) Ascocarpic centrum ontogeny of species of Hypodermataceae of conifers II. Am J Bot 55: 45–52Google Scholar
  89. Groves JW (1946) North American species of Dermea. Mycologia 38: 351–431Google Scholar
  90. Groves JW (1952) The genus Tympanis. Can J Bot 30: 571–651Google Scholar
  91. Groves JW (1965) The genus Godronia. Can J Bot 43: 1195–1276Google Scholar
  92. Groves JW, Elliot ME (1961) Self-fertility in the Sclerotiniaceae. Can J Bot 39: 215–231Google Scholar
  93. Hafellner J (1984) Studien in Richtung einer natürlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. Nova Hedwigia Beih 79: 241–371Google Scholar
  94. Hafellner J (1988) Principles of classification and main taxonomic groups. In: Galum M (ed) CRC handbook of lichenology, vol III. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 41–52Google Scholar
  95. Hafellner J (1994) Problems in Lecanorales systematics. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 315–320Google Scholar
  96. Hafellner J, Hertel H, Rambold G, Timdal E (1994) Leconorales. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 379–387Google Scholar
  97. Hagedorn G, Scholler M (1999) A reevaluation of predatory orbiliaceous fungi. I. Phylogenetic analysis using rDNA sequence data. Sydowia 51: 89–113Google Scholar
  98. Harley JL, Smith SE (1983) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  99. Hashioka Y, Nakai Y (1980) Ultrastructure of pycnidial development and mycoparasitism in Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitic on Erysiphales. Trans Mycol Soc Jpn 21: 329–338Google Scholar
  100. Hawksworth DL, Sherwood MA (1982) Two new families in the Ascomycotina. Mycotaxon 16: 262–264Google Scholar
  101. Hawksworth DL, Kirk PM, Sutton BC, Pegler DN (1996) Ainsworth Bisby’s dictionary of the fungi, 8th edn. CAB International, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  102. Hennebert GL, Bellemère A (1979) Les formes conidi- ennes des discomycètes. Rev Mycol 43: 259–315Google Scholar
  103. Henssen A (1981) The lecanoralean centrum. In: Reynolds DR (ed) Ascomycete systematics: the Luttrellian concept. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 138–234Google Scholar
  104. Henseen A, Jahns HM (1974) Lichenes. Gèorg Thieme, Stuttgart, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  105. Holst-Jensen A, Kohn LM, Jakobsen KS, Schumacher T (1997a) Molecular phylogeny and evolution of Monilia ( Sclerotiniaceae) based on coding and non-coding rDNA sequences. Am J Bot 84: 686–701Google Scholar
  106. Holst-Jensen A, Kohn LM, Schumacher T (1997b) Nuclear rDNA phylogeny of the Sclerotiniaceae. Mycologia 89: 885–899Google Scholar
  107. Honegger R (1978) The ascus apex in lichenized fungi. I. The Lecanora-, Petigera-, and Teloschistes-types. Lichenologist 10: 47–67Google Scholar
  108. Honegger R (1980) The ascus apex in lichenized fungi. II. The Rhizocarpon-type. Lichenologist 12: 157–172Google Scholar
  109. Honegger R (1982a) The ascus apex in lichenized fungi. III. The Pertusaria-type. Lichenologist 14: 205–217Google Scholar
  110. Honegger R (1982b) Ascus structure and function, ascospore delimitation, and phycobiont cell wall types associated with the Lecanorales (lichenized Ascomycetes). J Hattori Bot Lab 52: 417–429Google Scholar
  111. Hongegger R (1983) The ascus apex in lichenized fungi. IV. Baeomyces and Jcmadophila in comparison with Cladonia (Lecanorales) and the non-lichenized Leotia (Helotiales). Lichenologist 15: 57–71Google Scholar
  112. Hosoya T (1998) Application of underutilized microbial resources in drug discovery: a review focused on discomycetes. Ann Rep Sankyo Res Lab 50: 15–40Google Scholar
  113. Hosoya T, Otani Y (1995) Gelatinipulvinella astraeicola gen. et sp. nov., a fungicolous discomycete and its anamorph. Mycologia 87: 689–696Google Scholar
  114. Huhtinen S (1989) A monograph of Hyaloscypha and allied genera. Karstenia 29: 45–252Google Scholar
  115. Huhtinen S, Santesson R (1997) A new lichenicolous species of Polydesmia ( Leotiales, Hyaloscyphaceae). Lichenologist 29: 205–208Google Scholar
  116. Humphries CJ, Cox JM, Nielsen ES (1986) Nothofagus and its parasites: a cladistic approach to coevolution. In: Stone AR, Hawksworth DL (eds) Coevolution and systematics. Clarendon, Oxford, UK, pp 57–76Google Scholar
  117. Ingold CT (1965) Spore liberation. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  118. Jahns HM, Ott S (1994) Thallic, mycelial and cytological characters. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 57–62Google Scholar
  119. Janex-Favre M-C, Letrouit-Galinou M-A (1969) Sur la morphogenèse des apothécies lirelliformes des graphicacées et ses mécanismes. Mém Soc Bot Fr 115: 156–167Google Scholar
  120. Johnston PR (1986) Rhytismataceae in New Zealand 1. Some foliicolous species of Coccomyces de Notaris and Propolis (Fries) Corda. N Z J Bot 24: 89–124Google Scholar
  121. Johnston PR (1988) An undescribed pattern of ascocarp development in some non-coniferous Lophodermium species. Mycotaxon 31: 383–394Google Scholar
  122. Johnston PR (1989) Rhytismataceae in New Zealand 2.The genus Lophodermium on indigenous plants. N Z J Bot 27: 243–274Google Scholar
  123. Johnston PR (1990) Hypohelion,gen. nov. (Rhytismataceae). Mycotaxon 39:219–227Google Scholar
  124. Johnston PR (1993) Three species of Rhytismataceae from bromeliads. Sydowia 45: 21–33Google Scholar
  125. Johnston PR (1994) Ascospore sheaths of some Coccomyces, Hypoderma, and Lophodermium species (Rhytismataceae). Mycotaxon 52: 221–239Google Scholar
  126. Johnston PR (1997) Tropical Rhytismatales. In: Hyde KD (ed) Biodiversity of tropical microfungi. Hong Kong University Press, pp 241–254Google Scholar
  127. Jülich W, deVries B (1982) On the genera Ascocorticium and Ascosorus (Ascocorticiaceae). Persoonia 11: 407420Google Scholar
  128. Kärnefelt I (1989) Morphology and phylogeny in the Teloschistales. Cryptogam Bot 1: 147–203Google Scholar
  129. Kärnefelt 1 (1991) Evolutionary rates in the Teloshistaceae. In: Galloway DJ (ed) Tropical lichens: their systematics, conservation, and ecology. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 105–122Google Scholar
  130. Kärnefelt I, Thell A (1992) The evaluation of characters in lichenized families, exemplified with the alectorioid and some parmelioid genera. Plant Syst Evol 180: 181204Google Scholar
  131. Kärnefelt I, Mattsson J-E, Thell A (1992) Evolution and phylogeny of cetrarioid lichens. Plant Syst Evol 183: 113–160Google Scholar
  132. Kendrick B, DiCosmo F (1979) Teleomorph-anamorph connections in Ascomycetes. In: Kendrick B (ed) The whole fungus: the sexual-asexual synthesis I. Natl Mus Nat Sci, Nat Mus Can, Kananaskis Foundation, Ottawa, Canada, pp 283–410Google Scholar
  133. Kendrick WB, Murase G (1994) Can we recognize monophyletic groups among hyphomycetes? In: Hawks-Google Scholar
  134. worth D (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 101–108Google Scholar
  135. Kimbrough JW (1966) Studies in the Pseudoascoboleae. Can J Bot 44: 685–704Google Scholar
  136. Kimbrough JW (1971) Current trends in the classification of discomycetes. Bot Rev 36: 91–161Google Scholar
  137. Kimbrough JW (1972) Ascal structure, ascocarp ontogeny, and a natural classification of the Thelebolaceae. Persoonia 6: 395–404Google Scholar
  138. Kimbrough JW (1981) The discomycete centrum. In: Reynolds DR (ed) Ascomycete systematics: the Luttrellian concept. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 92–101Google Scholar
  139. Kimbrough JW (1984) Life cycles and natural history of Ascomycetes. In: Wheeler Q, Blackwell M (eds) Fungus-insect relationships: perspectives in ecology and evolution. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 184–210Google Scholar
  140. Kimbrough JW (1989) Arguments towards restricting the limits of the Pyronemataceae (Ascomycetes, Pezizales). Mem N Y Bot Gard 49: 326–335Google Scholar
  141. Kimbrough JW (1994) Septal ultrastructure and ascomycete systematics. In: Hawksworth D (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 127141Google Scholar
  142. Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1979) Marine mycology: the higher fungi. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  143. Kohn LM (1979) A monographic revision of the genus Sclerotina. Mycotaxon 9: 365–444Google Scholar
  144. Kohn LM (1993) What do we need to know about discomycetous anamorphs? In: Reynolds DR, Taylor JW (eds) The fungal holomorph: mitotic, meiotic and pleomorphic speciation in fungal systematics. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 129–139Google Scholar
  145. Kohn LM, Korf RP (1975) Variation in ascomycete iodine reactions: KOH pretreatment explored. Mycotaxon 3: 165–172Google Scholar
  146. Korf RP (1951) A monograph of the Archnopezizeae. Lloydia 14: 129–180Google Scholar
  147. Korf RP (1972) Synoptic key to the genera of the Pezizales. Mycologia 64: 937–994Google Scholar
  148. Korf RP (1973a) Sparassoid ascocarps in Pezizales and Tuberales. Rep Tottori Mycol Inst 10: 389–403Google Scholar
  149. Korf RP (1973b) Discomycetes and Tuberales. In:Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds) The Fungi: an advanced treatise, vol IVA. Academic Press, New York, pp 249–319Google Scholar
  150. Korf RP (1980) Mollisia in Macaronesia: an exercise in frustration. Mycotaxon 10:4.59–472Google Scholar
  151. Korf RP (1983) Cyttaria (Cyttariales): Coevolution with Nothofagus,and evolutionary relationship to the Boedijnopezizeae (Pezizales, Sarcoscyphaceae). Aust J Bot Suppl 10:77–87Google Scholar
  152. Korf RP (1997) Tropical and subtropical Discomycetes. In: Hyde KD (ed) Biodiversity of tropical microfungi. Hong Kong University Press, pp 229–240Google Scholar
  153. Kowalski T, Kehr RD (1996) Fungal endophytes of living branch bases in several European tree species. In: Redlin SC, Carris LM (eds) Endophytic fungi in grasses and woody plants: systematics, ecology and evolution. APS Press, St Paul, MN, pp 67100Google Scholar
  154. Landvik S (1996a) Phylogenetic rDNA studies of discomycetes (Ascomycota). Thesis, Umea University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  155. Landvik S (1996b) Neolecta,a fruit-body-producing genus of the basal ascomycetes, as shown by SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Mycol Res 100:199–202Google Scholar
  156. Landvik S, Eriksson OE (1994a) Relationship of the genus Glaziella (Ascomycota) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Syst Ascomyc 13: 13–23Google Scholar
  157. Landvik S, Eriksson OE (1994b) Relationship of Tuber, Elaphomyces, and Cyttaria (Ascomycotina), inferred from 18S rDNA studies. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 225–231Google Scholar
  158. Landvik S, Eriksson 0E, Gargas A, Gustafsson P (1993) Relationships of the genus Neolecta (Neolectales Ordo Nov., Ascomycotina) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Syst Ascomyc 11: 107–118Google Scholar
  159. Landvik S, Egger KN, Schumacher T (1997) Towards a sub-ordinal classification of the Pezizales (Ascomycota): phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA squences. Nord J Bot 17: 403–418Google Scholar
  160. Landvik S, Shailer NFJ, Eriksson OE (1996) SSU rDNA sequence support for a close relationship between the Elaphomycetales and the Eurotiales and Onygenales. Mycoscience 37: 237–241Google Scholar
  161. Landvik S, Kristiansen R, Schumacher T (1998) Phylogenetic and structural studies in the Thelebolaceae ( Ascomycota ). Mycoscience 39: 49–56Google Scholar
  162. Lawrey JD (1984) Biology of lichenized fungi. Praeger, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  163. Le Gal M (1946a) Mode de déhiscence des asques chez les Cookenia et les Leotia, et ses conséquences du point de vue phylogénétique. C R Acad Sci 222: 755–757Google Scholar
  164. Le Gal M (1946b) Les Discomycètes suboperculés. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 62: 218–240Google Scholar
  165. Le Gal M (1969) Position taxonomique du genre Phaedropezia Le Gal et révision de la famille des Humariaceae. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 85: 5–19Google Scholar
  166. Letrouit-Galinou MA (1966) Recherches sur l’ontogénie et l’anatomie comparée des apothécies de quelques discolichens. Rev Bryol Lichenol 34:3–4, 423–588Google Scholar
  167. Letrouit-Galinou MA (1968) The apothecia of the discolichens. Bryologist 71: 297–327Google Scholar
  168. Letrouit-Galinou MA (1973) Les asques des lichens et le type archaeascé. Bryologist 76: 30–47Google Scholar
  169. Letrouit-Galinou MA, Bellemère A (1989) Ascomatal development in lichens: a review. Crytogam Bryol Lichenol 10: 189–233Google Scholar
  170. Letrouit-Galinou MA, Pargey-Leduc A, Janex-Favre MC (1994) Ascoma structure and ontogensis in ascomycete systematics. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 23–36Google Scholar
  171. Li L-T (1997) Ultrastructual studies of Leucangium carthusianum (hypogeous Pezizales). Int J Plant Sci 158: 189–197Google Scholar
  172. Li L-T, Kimbrough JW (1994) Ultrastructural evidence for a relationship of the truffle genus Genea to Otideaceae ( Pezizales ). Int J Plant Sci 155: 235–243Google Scholar
  173. Li L-T, Kimbrough JW (1995) Septal ultrastructure in three species of Tuber (hypogeous Pezizales). Int J Plant Sci 156: 849–856Google Scholar
  174. Li L-T, Kimbrough JW (1996) Spore ontogeny in species of Phillipsia and Wynnea ( Pezizales ). Can J Bot 74: 10–18Google Scholar
  175. Liou GY, Tzean SS (1997) Phylogeny of the genus Arthrobotrys and allied nematode-trapping fungi based on rDNA sequences. Mycologia 89: 876–884Google Scholar
  176. Livsey S, Minter DW (1994) The taxonomy and biology of Tryblidiopsis pinastri. Can J Bot 72: 549–557Google Scholar
  177. Lumbsch HT (1997) A comparison of ascoma ontogeny supports the inclusion of Eigleraceae in the Hymeneliaceae (Lecanorales). Bryologist 100: 180–192Google Scholar
  178. Lunke T, Lumbsch HT, Feige GB (1996) Anatomical and ontogenetic studies on the lichen family Schaereriaceae ( Agyriineae, Lecanorales). Bryologist 99: 53–63Google Scholar
  179. Maia LC, Yano AM, Kimbrough JW (1996) Species of Ascomycota forming ectomycorrhizae. Mycotaxon 57: 371–390Google Scholar
  180. Mengoni T (1986) El aparato apical del asco de Cyttaria harioti (Ascomycetes-Cyttariales) con microscopia fotonica y electonica. Bol Soc Arg Bot 24: 393–401Google Scholar
  181. Mengoni T (1987) Ontogenia y citologia del asco de las especies Argentinas de Cyttaria. PhD Dissertation, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de La PlataGoogle Scholar
  182. Mengoni TP (1989) Consideraciones acerca del modo de fecundacion en Cyttaria (Ascomycotina-Cyttariales). Bol Soc Arg Bot 26: 7–12Google Scholar
  183. Meyer SLF, Luttrell ES (1986) Ascoma morphology of Pseudopeziza trifolii forma specialis medicaginsissativae ( Dermateaceae) on alfalfa. Mycologia 78: 529542Google Scholar
  184. Mikola P (1965) Studies of ectendotrophic mycorrhiza of pine. Acta For Fenn 55: 1–13Google Scholar
  185. Minter DW (1980) Lophodermium on pines. Mycol Pap 147:1–54Google Scholar
  186. Minter DW, Cannon PF (1984) Ascospore discharge in some members of the Rhytismataceae. Trans Br Mycol Soc 83: 65–92Google Scholar
  187. Minter DW, Cannon PF, Peredo HL (1987) South American species of Cyttaria (a remarkable and beautiful group of edible ascomycetes). Mycologist 21: 7–11Google Scholar
  188. Momol EA, Kimbrough JW (1994) Phylogenetic analysis of selected genera of Pezizales inferred from 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 sequences. Syst Ascomyc 12: 1–12Google Scholar
  189. Momol EA, Kimbrough JW, Eriksson OE (1996) Phylogenetic relationships of Thelebolus indicated by 18S rDNA sequence analyses. Syst Ascomyc 14: 92–100Google Scholar
  190. Moore EJ (1963) The ontogeny of the apothecia of Pyronema domesticum. Am J Bot 50: 37–44Google Scholar
  191. Moreau J-M, Maraite H (1996) Evidence for a heterothallic mating system in Tapesia acuformis using benomyl sensitivity and esterase isoenzyme profiles. Mycol Res 100: 1227–1236Google Scholar
  192. Morgan-Jones JF, Hulton RL (1979) Ascocarp development in Lophodermium pinastri. Mycologia 71: 10431052Google Scholar
  193. Nannfeldt JA (1932) Studien über die Morphologie und Systematik der nicht-lichenisierten inoperculaten Discomyceten. Nova Acta Reg Soc Sci Ups Ser IV 8: 1–368Google Scholar
  194. Nash TH III (1996) Lichen biology. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  195. O’Donnell KL, Hooper GR (1978) Apothecial ontogeny in Pulvinula tetraspora ( Pezizales: Ascomycetes). Can J Bot 56: 101–106Google Scholar
  196. O’Donnell KL, Fields WG, Hooper GR (1974) Scanning ultrastructural ontogeny of cleistohymenial apothecia in the operculate discomycete Ascobolus furfuraceus. Can J Bot 52: 1653–1656Google Scholar
  197. O’Donnell KL, Hooper GR, Fields WG (1976) Scanning ultrastructural ontogeny of eugymnohymenial apothecia in the operculate discomycetes Ascodesmis nigricans and A. sphaerospora. Can J Bot 54: 572577Google Scholar
  198. O’Donnell KL, Cigelnik E, Weber NS, Trappe JM (1997) Phylogenetic relationships among ascomycetous truffles and the true and false morels inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Mycologia 89: 48–65Google Scholar
  199. Ogawa H, Yoshimura A, Sugiyama J (1997) Polyphyletic origins of species of the anamorphic genus Geosmithia and the relationships of the cleistothecial genera: evidence from 18S, 5S and 28S rDNA sequence analyses. Mycologia 89: 756–771Google Scholar
  200. Ott S, Burger E, Schuster G, Jahn M (1996) Distribution of lichens on rock. Herzogia 12: 171–198Google Scholar
  201. Ower R (1982) Notes on the development of the morel ascocarp. Mycologia 74: 142–144Google Scholar
  202. Paden JW (1972) Imperfect states and taxonomy of Fezizales. Persoonia 6: 405–414Google Scholar
  203. Paden JW, Sutherland JR, Woods TAD (1978) Caloscypha fulgens (Ascomycetidae, Pezizales): the perfect state of the conifer seed pathogen Geniculodendron pyriforme (Deuteromycotina, Hyphomycetes). Can J Bot 56: 2375 2379Google Scholar
  204. Parguey-Leduc A, Janex-Favre MC (1987) Formation et évolution des ascospores de Tuber melanosporum (truffe noire du Périgord, discomycètes). Can J Bot 65: 1491–1503Google Scholar
  205. Parguey-Leduc A, Montant C, Kulifaj M (1987) Morphologie et structure de l’ascocarpe adulte du Tuber melanosporum Vitt. (truffle noire du Périgord, discomycètes). Cryptogam Mycol 8: 173–202Google Scholar
  206. Parguey-Leduc A, Janex-Favre M-C, Montant C, Kulifaj M (1989) Ontogénie et structure de l’ascocarpe du Tuber melanosporum Vitt. (truffle noire du Périgord, discomycètes). Bull Soc Mycol Fr 105: 227–246Google Scholar
  207. Parguey-Leduc A, Janex-Favre MC, Montant C (1990) L’appareil sporophytique et les asques du Tuber melanosporum Vitt. (truffe noire du Périgord, discomycètes). Cryptogam Mycol 11: 47–68Google Scholar
  208. Petersen PM (1970) Danish fireplace fungi: an ecological investigation on fungi on burns. Dan Bot Ark 27: 397Google Scholar
  209. Petersen PM (1974) Fireplace fungi in an Arctic area: Middle West Greenland. Friesia 10: 270–280Google Scholar
  210. Petrini 0 (1982) Notes on some species of Chloroscypha endophytic in Cupressaceae of Europe and North America. Sydowia 35: 206–222Google Scholar
  211. Petrini O (1984) Endophytic fungi in British Ericaceae: a preliminary study. Trans Br Mycol Soc 83: 510512Google Scholar
  212. Petrini O, Carroll GC (1981) Endophytic fungi in the foliage of some Cupressaceae in Oregon. Can J Bot 59: 629–636Google Scholar
  213. Petrini O, Stone JK, Carroll FE (1982) Endophytic fungi in evergreen shrubs in Western Oregon: a preliminary study. Can J Bot 60: 789–796Google Scholar
  214. Pfister DH (1970) Histochemical study of the composition of spore ornamentations in operculate discomycetes. Mycologia 67: 234–237Google Scholar
  215. Pfister DH (1972) Notes on Caribbean discomycetes — 1. Cytological evidence for the exclusion of Phaedropezia from the Sarcoscyphaceae. Carib J Sci 12: 39–40Google Scholar
  216. Pfister DH (1973a) The psilopezioid fungi III. The genus Psilopezia (Pezizales). Am J Bot 60: 355–365Google Scholar
  217. Pfister DH (1973b) The psilopezioid fungi IV. The genus Pachyella. Can J Bot 51: 2009–2023Google Scholar
  218. Pfister DH (1974) The psilopezioid fungi V. Miladina lechithina. Can J Bot 52: 1643–1645Google Scholar
  219. Pfister DH (1976) Calloriopsis and Micropyxis: two discomyete genera in the Calloriopsideae trib. nov. Mycotaxon 4:340–346Google Scholar
  220. Pfister DH (1980) “Peziza” melaleucoides — a species of Gyromitra from the western United States. Mycologia 72:614–619Google Scholar
  221. Pfister DH (1982) A nomenclatural revision of F. J. Seaver’s North American cup-fungi (operculates). Occ Pap Farlow Herb Cryptog Bot 17: 1–32Google Scholar
  222. Pfister DH (1984) Two new localities for Medeolaria farlowii in New England. Rhodora 86: 235–236Google Scholar
  223. Pfister DH (1993) A synopsis of the North American species of Byssonectria (Pezizales) with comments on the ontogeny of two species. Mycologia 85: 952–962Google Scholar
  224. Pfister DH (1997) Castor, Pollux and life histories of fungi. Mycologia 89: 1–23Google Scholar
  225. Poder R, Scheuer C (1994) Moserella radicicola gen. et sp. nov., a new hypogeous species of Leotiales on ectomycorrhizes of Picea abies. Mycol Res 98: 1334–1338Google Scholar
  226. Poelt J (1969) Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Cramer, Lehre, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  227. Poelt J (1973) Classification. In: Ahmadjian V, Hale ME (eds) The lichens. Academic Press, New York, pp 599–632Google Scholar
  228. Racovitza A (1959) Étude systemâtique et biologique des champignons bryophiles. Mém Mus Natl Hfst Sér B Bot 10: 1–288Google Scholar
  229. Raitviir A (1987) Notes on the taxonomy and nomenclature of Belonidium, Trichopeziza and Lachnum (Hyaloscyphaceae). Eesti NSV Tead Akad Toim, Biol 36: 313–318Google Scholar
  230. Rambold G (1995) Observations on hyphal, ascus and ascospore wall characters in Lecanorales s. 1. Cryptogam Bot 5: 111–119Google Scholar
  231. Rambold G, Triebel D (1990) Gelatinopsis, Geltingia and Phaeopyxis: three helotialian genera with lichenicolous species. Not R Bot Gard Edinburgh 46: 375–389Google Scholar
  232. Rambold G, Triebel D (1992) The inter-Lecanoralean associations. Bibl Lichenol 48: 1–201Google Scholar
  233. Rambold G, Triebel D, Hertel H (1993) lcmadophilaceae, a new family in the Leotiales. Biblioth Lichenol 53: 217–240Google Scholar
  234. Rauscher T, Agerer R, Chevalier G (1995) Ectomykorrhizen von Tuber melanosporum, Tuber mesentericum und Tuber rufum (Tuberales) an Corylus avellana. Nova Hedwigia 61: 281–322Google Scholar
  235. Read ND, Beckett A (1996) Ascus and ascospore morpho-genesis. Mycol Res 100: 1281–1314Google Scholar
  236. Redhead SA (1977a) The genus Mitrula in North America. Can J Bot 55: 307–325Google Scholar
  237. Redhead SA (1977b) The genus Neolecta (Neolectaceae fam. nov., Lecanorales, Ascomycetes) in Canada. Can J Bot 55: 301–306Google Scholar
  238. Redhead SA, Spicer KW (1981) Discinella schimperi,a circumpolar parasite of Sphagnum squarrosum,and notes on Bryophytomyces sphagni. Mycologia 73:904913Google Scholar
  239. Renny J (1874) New species of the genus Ascobolus. J Bot 12: 353–357Google Scholar
  240. Riedl H (1995) Die morphologischen Beziehungen zwischen Stroma, Ascocarp und vegetativem Flechtenthallus. In: Daniels FJA, Schulz M, Peine J (eds) Flechtem Follman, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany, pp 63–73Google Scholar
  241. Rifai MA (1968) The Australasian Pezizales in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Verh K Ned Akad Wet Afd Natuurk Tweede Sect 57: 1–295Google Scholar
  242. Saccardo PA (1884) Conspectus generum Discomycetum hucusque cognitorum. Bot Centralb 18:213–220 Saccardo PA (1889) Sylloge fungorum omnium hucusqueGoogle Scholar
  243. cognitorum 8:1–1143Google Scholar
  244. Saenz GS, Taylor JW, Gargas A (1994) 18S rRNA gene sequences and supraordinal classification of the Erysiphales. Mycologia 86: 212–216Google Scholar
  245. Saito I (1974) Ultrastructural aspects of the maturation of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Trans Mycol Soc Jpn 15: 384–400Google Scholar
  246. Samuelson DA (1975) The apical apparatus of the suboperculate ascus. Can J Bot 53: 2660–2679Google Scholar
  247. Samuelson DA (1978a) Asci of the Pezizales I. The apical apparatus of iodine-positive species. Can J Bot 56: 1860–1875Google Scholar
  248. Samuelson DA (1978b) Asci of the Pezizales II. The apical apparatus of representatives in the Otidea-Aleuria complex. Can J Bot 56: 1876–1904Google Scholar
  249. Samuelson DA (1978c) Asci of the Pezizales III. The apical apparatus of eugymnohymenial representatives. Am J Bot 65: 748–758Google Scholar
  250. Samuelson DA (1978d) Asci of the Pezizales IV. The apical apparatus of Morchella esculenta, Helvella crispa, and Rhizina undulata. General discussion. Can J Bot 56: 3069–3082Google Scholar
  251. Samuelson DA, Kimbrough JW (1978) Asci of the Pezizales. IV. The apical apparatus of Thelebolus. Bot Gaz 139: 346–361Google Scholar
  252. Samuelson DA, Benny GL, Kimbrough JW (1980) Asci of the Pezizales VII. The apical apparatus of Galiella rufa and Sarcosoma globosum: reevaluation of the suboperculate ascus. Can J Bot 58: 1235–1243Google Scholar
  253. Sanchez A (1967) The sections Apostemium and Microstemium of the genus Vibrissea (fungi). J Agric Univ Puerto Rico 51: 79–93Google Scholar
  254. Schmidt A (1999) Studien an Erysiphales–Anamorphen (I): Konidienkeimung bei Microsphaera und Sphaerotheca. Z Mycol 65: 81–94Google Scholar
  255. Scholler M, Hagedorn G, Rubner A (1999) A reevaluation of predatory orbiliaceous fungi. II. A new generic concept. Sydowia 51: 27–48Google Scholar
  256. Schrantz J-P (1964) Etude au microscope électronique des synapses de deux discomycètes: Peziza aurantia Pers. ex Fr. et Ciliaria hirta (Schum.) Boudier. C R Acad Sci 258: 3342–3344Google Scholar
  257. Schumacher T (1978) Operculate discomycetes (Pezizales) on river banks in Norway. Norw J Bot 25: 207–220Google Scholar
  258. Schumacher T (1979) Notes on taxonomy, ecology, and distribution of operculate discomycetes (Pezizales) from river banks in Norway. Norw J Bot 26: 53–83Google Scholar
  259. Seaver FJ (1928) The North American cup-fungi (operculates). By author, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  260. Seaver FJ (1942) The North American cup-fungi (operculates), revised edn. By author, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  261. Seaver FJ (1951) The North American cup-fungi (inoperculates). By author, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  262. Seppelt RD (1995) Phytogeography of continental antarctic lichens. Lichenologist 27: 417–431Google Scholar
  263. Sherwood MA (1977) The ostropalean fungi. Mycotaxon 5: 1–277Google Scholar
  264. Sherwood MA (1980) Taxonomic studies in the Phacidiales: the genus Coccomyces (Rhytismataceae). Occ Pap Farl Herb Cryptogam Bot 15: 1–120Google Scholar
  265. Sherwood MA (1981) Convergent evolution in discomycetes from bark and wood. Bot J Linn Soc 82: 15–34Google Scholar
  266. Sherwood-Pike MA (1987) The ostropalean fungi III: The Odontotremataceae. Mycotaxon 28: 137–177Google Scholar
  267. Sherwood-Pike M, Stone JK, Carroll GC (1986) Rhabdocline parkeri, a ubiquitous foliar endophyte of Douglas-fir. Can J Bot 64: 1849–1855Google Scholar
  268. Spatafora JW, Blackwell M (1993) Ascomycete molecular systematics. Mycologia 85: 912–922Google Scholar
  269. Spencer DM (1978) The powdery mildew diseases. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  270. Spooner BM (1987) Helotiales of Australasia: Geoglossaceae, Orbiliaceae, Sclerotiniaceae, Hyaloscyphaceae. Bibl Mycol 116: 1–711Google Scholar
  271. Starbäck K (1895) Diskomycetenstudien. Bihang K Sven Vet-Akad Handl 21, 3: 1–42Google Scholar
  272. Stenroos SK, DePriest PT (1998) SSU rDNA phylogeny of cladoniiform lichens. Am J Bot 85: 1548–1559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Stevens RB (ed) (1974) Mycology guidebook. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  274. Suberkropp K (1992) Aquatic hyphomycete communities. In: Carroll GC, Wicklow DT (eds) The fungal community: its organization and role in the ecosystem. Marcel Decker, New York, pp 729–747Google Scholar
  275. Sutton BC, Hennebert GL (1994) Interconnections amongst anamorphs and their possible contribution to ascomycete systematics. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. Plenum Press, New York, pp 77–100Google Scholar
  276. Tehler A (1996) Systematics, phylogeny and classification. In: Nash TH (ed) Lichen biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 217–239Google Scholar
  277. Tehon LR (1935) A monographic rearrangement of Lophodermium. Illinois Biol Mon 13: 1–151Google Scholar
  278. Terrier C-A (1942) Essai sur la systématique des Phacidiaceae (Fr.) sensu Nannfeldt (1932). Beit Kryptogamen-Flora Schweiz 9: 1–99Google Scholar
  279. Thaxter R (1922) Notes on two remarkable Ascomycetes. Proc Am Acad Arts Sci 57: 425–436Google Scholar
  280. The11.
    A (1995) Pycnoconidial types and their presence in cetrarioid lichens (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae) Cryptogam Bryol Lichénol 16: 247–256Google Scholar
  281. Thell A, Mattsson J-E, Kärnefelt I (1995) Lecanoralean ascus types in the lichenized families Alectoriaceae and Parmeliaceae. Cryptogam Bot 5: 120–127Google Scholar
  282. Tibell L (1984) A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. Nova Hedwigia Beih 79: 597–713Google Scholar
  283. Tibell L (1994) Distribution patterns and dispersal strate-Google Scholar
  284. gies of Caliciales. Bot J Linn Soc 116:159–202Google Scholar
  285. Tibell L (1996) Caliciales. Flora Neotropica Monograph 69.Google Scholar
  286. NY Bot Gard, New York, pp 69–78Google Scholar
  287. Trappe JM (1979) The orders, families, and genera of hypogeous Ascomycotina (truffles and their relatives). Mycotaxon 9: 297–340Google Scholar
  288. Treibel D, Baral H-0 (1996) Notes on the ascus types in Crocicreas ( Leotiales, Ascomycetes) with a characterization of selected taxa. Sentnera 3: 199–218Google Scholar
  289. Trinci APJ, Collinge AJ (1973) Structure and plugging of septa of wild type and spreading colony mutants of Neurospora crassa. Arch Mikrobiol 91: 355–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Tsugio S (1994) Studies on the occurrence of Chloroscypha needle blight of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, Physiological and ecological characteristics and pathogenicity of the causal fungus. Bull For Prod Res Inst 368: 23–63Google Scholar
  291. van Beverwijk AL (1953) Helicosporous hyphomycetes I. Trans Br Mycol Soc 36: 111–124Google Scholar
  292. van Brummelen J (1967) A world monograph of the genera Ascobolus and Saccobolus (Ascomycetes, Pezizales). Persoonia 1 (Suppl): 1–260Google Scholar
  293. van Brummelen J (1975) Light and electron microscopic studies of the ascus top in Sarcoscypha coccinea. Persoonia 8: 259–271Google Scholar
  294. van Brummelen J (1981) The operculate ascus and allied forms. In: Reynolds DR (ed) Ascomycete systematics, the Luttrellean concept. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 27–48Google Scholar
  295. van Brummelen J (1989) Ultrastructure of the ascus and the ascospore wall in Eleutherascus and Ascodesmis (Ascomycotina). Persoonia 14: 1–17Google Scholar
  296. van Brummelen J (1993) Ultrastructure of the ascus and the ascospore wall in Scutellinia (Pezizales, Ascomycotina). Persoonia 15: 129–148Google Scholar
  297. Verkley GJM (1993a) Ultrastructure of the ascus apical apparatus in ten species of Sclerotiniaceae. Mycol Res 97: 179–194Google Scholar
  298. Verkley GJM (1993b) Ultrastructure of the ascus apical apparatus in Hymenoscyphus and other genera of the Hymenoscyphoideae (Leotiales, Ascomycotina). Persoonia 15: 303–340Google Scholar
  299. Verkley GJM (1994) Ultrastructure of the ascus apical apparatus in Leotia lubrica and some Geoglossaceae (Leotiales, Ascomycotina). Persoonia 15: 405–430Google Scholar
  300. Verkley GJM (1995a) Ultrastructure of the ascus apical apparatus in species of Cenangium, Encoelia, Claussenomyces and Ascocoryne. Mycol Res 99: 187–199Google Scholar
  301. Verkley GJM (1995b) The ascus apical apparatus in Leotiales: an evaluation of ultrastructural characters as phylogenetic markers in the families Sclerotiniaceae, Leotiaceae, and Geoglossaceae. Rijksherbarium/ Hortus BotanicusGoogle Scholar
  302. Verkley GJM (1996) Ultrastructure of the ascus in the genera Lachnum and Trichopeziza (Hyaloscyphaceae, Ascomycotina). Nova Hedwigia 63: 215–228Google Scholar
  303. Verkley GJM, van der Aa HA, de Cock GW (1997) Bryoscyphus atromarginatus spec. nov. (Leotiaceae), a new ascomycete parasitizing the thallus of Marchantia polymorpha. Persoonia 16:383–388Google Scholar
  304. Volk TJ, Leonard TJ (1990) Cytology of the life cycle of Morchella. Mycol Res 94: 399–406Google Scholar
  305. von Keissler K (1930) Die Flechtenparasiten. In: Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamen-flora 8: 1–712Google Scholar
  306. Warcup JH (1990) Occurrence of ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic discomycetes after a wild fire in a eucalypt forest. Mycol Res 94: 1065–1069Google Scholar
  307. Warcup JH (1991) The fungi forming mycorrhizas on eucalypt seedlings in regeneration coupes in Tasmania. Mycol Res 95: 329–332Google Scholar
  308. Warcup JH, Talbot PHB (1989) Muciturbo: a new genus of hypogeous ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes. Mycol Res 92: 95–100Google Scholar
  309. Weber E, Bresinsky A (1992) Polyploidy in discomycetes. Persoonia 14: 553–563Google Scholar
  310. Weber NS, Trappe JM, Denison WC (1997) Studies on western American Pezizales. Collecting and describing ascomata — macroscopic features. Mycotaxon 61: 153–176Google Scholar
  311. Webster J (1961) The Mollisia perfect stage of Anguil- lospora crassa. Trans Br Mycol Soc 44: 559–564Google Scholar
  312. Webster J (1987) Convergent evolution of the functional significance of spore shape in aquatic and semi-aquatic fungi. In: Rayer ADM, Basier CM, Moore D (eds) Evolutionary biology of fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 191–201Google Scholar
  313. Webster J, Descales E (1979) The teleomorphs of water-borne hyphomycetes from fresh water. In: Kendrick B (ed) The whole fungus: the sexual-asexual synthesis. Natl Mus of Nat Sci, Natl Mus of Can, Kananaskis Foundation, Ottawa, Canada, pp 419–451Google Scholar
  314. Webster J, Rifai MA, El-Abyad MS (1964) Culture observations on some Discomycetes from burnt ground. Trans Br Mycol Soc 47: 445–454Google Scholar
  315. Whetzel HH (1945) A synopsis of the genera and species of the Sclerotiniaceae, a family of stromatic inoperculate Discomycetes. Mycologia 37: 648–714Google Scholar
  316. Wicklow D, Malloch D (1971) Studies in the genus Thiele-bolus: temperature optima for growth and ascocarp development. Mycologia 63: 118–131Google Scholar
  317. Willetts HJ (1997) Morphology, development and evolution of stromata/sclerotia and macroconidia of the Sclerotiniaceae. Mycol Res 101: 939–952Google Scholar
  318. Winka K, Ahlber C, Eriksson OE (1998) Are there lichenized Ostropales? Lichenologist 30: 455–462Google Scholar
  319. Wu C-G, Kimbrough JW (1992a) Ultrastructural studies of ascosporogenesis in Ascobolus immersus. Mycologia 84: 459–466Google Scholar
  320. Wu C-G, Kimbrough JW (1992b) Ultrastructual investigation of Humariaceae (Pezizales, Ascomycetes). III. Ascosporogenesis in Mycolachnea hemisphaerica (tribe Lachneae). Int J Plant Sci 153: 128–135Google Scholar
  321. Wu C-G, Kimbrough JW (1996) Ultrastructure of spore ontogeny in species of Trichophaea ( Pezizales ). Int J Plant Sci 157: 595–604Google Scholar
  322. Yang CS, Wilcox HE (1984) An e-strain ectendomycorrhiza formed by a new species, Tricharina mikolae. Mycologia 76: 675–684Google Scholar
  323. Zhang B-C (1991) Morphology, cytology and taxonomy of Hydnotrya cerebriformis (Pezizales). Mycotaxon 42: 155–162Google Scholar
  324. Zhuang W-Y (1988a) A monograph of the genus Unguiculariopsis (Leotiaceae, Encoelioideae). Mycotaxon 32: 1–83Google Scholar
  325. Zhuang W-Y (1988b) The genus Parencoelia (Leotiaceae, Encoelioideae). Mycotaxon 32: 85–95Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald H. Pfister
    • 1
  • James W. Kimbrough
    • 2
  1. 1.Farlow Herbarium and LibraryHarvard University HerbariaCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Plant Pathology DepartmentUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations