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Plasma-Membrane and Related ATPases

  • R. Rao
  • C. W. Slayman
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 3)

Abstract

The E1E2- or P-ATPases are a large and physiologically important family of cation pumps, widely distributed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (Table 1). In eubacteria, they play a series of specialized roles: scavenging potassium ions from the medium under conditions of K+ starvation, accumulating Mg2+, regulating the cytoplasmic Ca2+ and Cu2+ concentrations, and ridding the cell of toxic heavy metals such as Cd2+ and Zn2+. In fungi, as in other eukaryotic cells, the PATPases have taken on a more central function, creating the primary ion gradient that underlies virtually all nutrient uptake by an array of secondary, cation-coupled cotransporters. The fungal plasma-membrane H+-ATPase uses as much as a fourth of cellular ATP to extrude protons electrogenically (Gradmann et al. 1978); the resulting gradient (largely a membrane potential) distributes energy to H+-dependent cotransporters for sugars (Seaston et al. 1973; Slayman and Slayman 1974), amino acids (Eddy and Nowacki 1971; Seaston et al. 1973; Sanders et al. 1983), and inorganic ions (Rodriguez-Navarro et al. 1986). Plant cells resemble fungi in relying upon a proton gradient formed by a plasma-membrane H+-ATPase, while animal cells use a sodium gradient, produced by the Na+,K+-ATPase, to regulate cell volume and drive Na+-dependent cotransport of ions and nutrients.

Keywords

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Secretory Vesicle Neurospora Crassa Transmembrane Segment Schizosaccharomyces Pombe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Rao
    • 1
  • C. W. Slayman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Genetics and Cellular & Molecular PhysiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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