Plasma-Membrane and Related ATPases

  • R. Rao
  • C. W. Slayman
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 3)


The E1E2- or P-ATPases are a large and physiologically important family of cation pumps, widely distributed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (Table 1). In eubacteria, they play a series of specialized roles: scavenging potassium ions from the medium under conditions of K+ starvation, accumulating Mg2+, regulating the cytoplasmic Ca2+ and Cu2+ concentrations, and ridding the cell of toxic heavy metals such as Cd2+ and Zn2+. In fungi, as in other eukaryotic cells, the PATPases have taken on a more central function, creating the primary ion gradient that underlies virtually all nutrient uptake by an array of secondary, cation-coupled cotransporters. The fungal plasma-membrane H+-ATPase uses as much as a fourth of cellular ATP to extrude protons electrogenically (Gradmann et al. 1978); the resulting gradient (largely a membrane potential) distributes energy to H+-dependent cotransporters for sugars (Seaston et al. 1973; Slayman and Slayman 1974), amino acids (Eddy and Nowacki 1971; Seaston et al. 1973; Sanders et al. 1983), and inorganic ions (Rodriguez-Navarro et al. 1986). Plant cells resemble fungi in relying upon a proton gradient formed by a plasma-membrane H+-ATPase, while animal cells use a sodium gradient, produced by the Na+,K+-ATPase, to regulate cell volume and drive Na+-dependent cotransport of ions and nutrients.


Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Secretory Vesicle Neurospora Crassa Transmembrane Segment Schizosaccharomyces Pombe 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Rao
    • 1
  • C. W. Slayman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Genetics and Cellular & Molecular PhysiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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