Yeast Retrotransposons

  • M. von Ciriacy
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 2)


Ty elements are retrotransposons of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the past decade, since Ty has been recognized as a retroelement, research on this genetic entity has provided novel insights and ideas on the relationship between retroelements and their host organism. Initially, much of the interest in retroelements clearly stemmed from their obvious similarity to retro-viruses. Because of increased funding for research on human deficiency virus (HIV), the current impetus for retroelement research results (i) from the ubiquitous occurrence of such elements in many eukaryotic organisms, (ii) from the question how such elements became integrated in the individual life cycle of a cell or an organism, and (iii) from the evolutionary significance of retroelements. The yeast transposon, Ty, along with related elements from Drosophila are model retroelements in many aspects. Yeast provides an exceptional genetic system to study the complex interactions between retroelements and the host cell. Research along this line has allowed not only remarkable insights into the biology and evolution of Ty elements, but has also supplied novel ideas on various aspects of yeast molecular biology, especially that of gene expression. The advanced state of yeast research justifies restriction of this review to Ty retroelements. The subject has been broadly reviewed by Boeke and Sandmeyer (1991), and the reader is referred to this comprehensive treatise. More updated reviews have been written by Sandmeyer (1992) and Voytas and Boeke (1993). Boeke and Chapman (1991) discuss special aspects of retrotransposition, and Wilke et al. (1992) consider the novel issue of Ty population biology and its evolutionary significance. A broader treatise on the evolution of the Ty1/copia class of retroelements was recently provided by Flavell (1992), and a brief survey on retroelements of lower eukaryotes was given by Ciriacy (1993). It is beyond the scope of this chapter to review systematically all Ty literature. I have treated mostly the recent literature and some previous papers which were relevant for one reason or another. This review will discuss the general structural and functional aspects of Ty elements, their replication and insertion strategies, novel insights concerning ectopic recombination, and finally aspects of Ty population biology and evolutionary aspects.


Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Transposable Element Long Terminal Repeat Long Terminal Repeat Sequence Ectopic Recombination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams SE, Dawson KM, Kingsman SM, Kingsman AJ (1987a) The expression of hybrid HIV: Ty virus-like particles in yeast. Nature 329: 68–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams SE, Mellor J, Gull K, Sim RB, Tuite MF, Kingsman SM, Kingsman AJ (1987b) The functions and relationships of Ty-VLP proteins in yeast reflect those of mammalian retroviral proteins. Cell 49: 111–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arndt K, Fink GR (1986) GCN4 protein, a positive transcription factor in yeast, binds general control promoters at all 5’ TGACTC 3’ sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 8516–8520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker HV (1991) GCR1 of Sacharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA-binding protein whose binding is abolished by mutations in the CTTCC sequence motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:9443–9447Google Scholar
  5. Belcourt MF, Farabaugh PJ (1990) Ribosomal frameshifting in the yeast retrotransposon Ty: tRNAs induce slippage on a 7 nucleotide minimal site. Cell 62: 339–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bilanchone VW, Claypool JA, Kinsey PT, Sandmeyer SB (1993) Positive and negative regulatory elements control expression of the yeast retrotransposon Ty3. Genetics 134: 685–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boeke JD, Chapman KB (1991) Retrotransposition mechanisms. Curr Opin Cell Biol 3: 502–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boeke JD, Sandmeyer SB (1991) Yeast transposable elements. In: Broach JR, Jones EW, Pringle J (eds) The molecular and cellular biology of the yeast Saccharomyces: genome dynamics, protein synthesis, and energetics, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 193–261Google Scholar
  9. Boeke JD, Garfinkel DJ, Styles CA, Fink GR (1985) Ty elements transpose through an RNA intermediate. Cell 40: 491–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boeke JD, Styles CA, Fink GR (1986) Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT3 gene is required for transposition and transpositional recombination of cromosomal Ty elements. Mol Cell Biol 6: 3575–3581Google Scholar
  11. Boeke JD, Eichinger D, Castrillon D, Fink GR (1988) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains functional and nonfunctional copies of transposon Tyl. Mol Cell Biol 8: 1432–1442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boeke JD, Eichinger DJ, Natsoulis G (1991) Doubling Tyl element copy number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: host genome stability and phenotypic effects. Genetics 129: 1043–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradshaw VA, McEntee K (1989) DNA damage activates transcription and transposition of yeast Ty retrotransposons. Mol Gen Genet 218: 465–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Breilmann D, Gafner J, Ciriacy M (1985) Gene conversion and reciprocal exchange in a Ty-mediated translocation in yeast. Curr Genet 9: 553–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brühl KH (1991) Untersuchungen zur Prozessierung von TY1-Proteinen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Diss, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, DüsseldorfGoogle Scholar
  16. Burns NR, Saibil HR, White NS, Pardon JF, Timmins PA, Richardson SMH, Richards BM, Adams SE, Kingsman SM, Kingsman AJ (1992) Symmetry, flexibility and permeability in the structure of yeast retrotransposon virus-like particles. EMBO J 11: 1155–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cameron JR, Loh LY, Davis RW (1979) Evidence for transposition of dispersed repetitive DNA families in yeast. Cell 16: 739–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Capsey LJ, Williamson DH, Banks GR (1990) Ty virus-like particles in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain NCYC74. Curr Genet 18: 485–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaleff DT, Fink GR (1980) Genetic events associated with an insertion mutation in yeast. Cell 21: 227–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chalker DL, Sandmeyer SB (1992) Ty3 integrats within the region of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation. Genes Dev 6: 117–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chalker DL, Sandmeyer SB (1993) Sites of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation and Ty3 integration at the U6 gene are positioned by the TATA box. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 4927–4931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chapman KB, Boeke JD (1991) Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding yeast debranching enzyme. Cell 65: 483–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chapman KB, Byström AS, Boeke JD (1992) Initiator methionine tRNA is essential for Tyl transposition in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 3236–3240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen J-Y, Fonzi WA (1992) A temperature-regulated, retrotransposon-like element from Candida albicans. J Bacteriol 174: 5624–5632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ciriacy M (1979) Isolation and characterization of further cis-and trans-acting regulatory elements involved in the synthesis of glucose-repressible alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHII) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet 176: 427–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ciriacy M (1993) Transposable elements in lower eukaryotes. Prog Bot 54: 306–317Google Scholar
  27. Ciriacy M, Breilmann D (1982) 8-Sequences mediate DNA rearrangements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet 6: 55–61Google Scholar
  28. Ciriacy M, Williamson VM (1981) Analysis of mutations affecting Ty-mediated gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet 182: 159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ciriacy M, Freidel K, Löhning C (1991) Characterization of trans-acting mutations affecting Ty and Ty-mediated transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet 20: 441–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clare J, Farabaugh PJ (1985) Nucleotide sequence of a yeast Ty element: evidence for an unusual mechanism of gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 2829–2833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clare JJ, Belcourt M, Farabaugh PJ (1988) Efficient translational frameshifting occurs within a conserved sequence of the overlap between the two genes of a yeast Tyl transposon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 6816–6820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clark DJ, Bilanchone VW, Haywood LJ, Dildine SL, Sandmeyer SB (1988) A yeast sigma composite element, TY3, has properties of a retrotransposon. J Biol Chem 263: 1413–1423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Clark-Adams CD, Norris D, Osley MA, Fassler JS, Winston F (1988) Changes in histone gene dosage alter transcription in yeast. Genes Dev 2: 150–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Company M, Errede B (1987) Cell-type-dependent gene activation by yeast transposon Tyl involves multiple regulatory determinants. Mol Cell Biol 7: 3205–3211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Company M, Errede B (1988) A Tyl cell-type-specific regulatory sequence is a recognition element for a constitutive binding factor. Mol Cell Biol 8: 5299–5309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Company M, Adler C, Errede B (1988) Identification of a Tyl regulatory sequence responsive to STET and STE12. Mol Cell Biol 8: 2545–2554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Derr LK, Strathern JN, Garfinkel DJ (1991) RNA-mediated recombination in S. cerevisiae. Cell 67: 355–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Downs KM, Brennan G, Liebman SW (1985) Deletions extending from a single Tyl element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 5: 3451–3457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dubois E, Jacobs E, Jauniaux J-C (1982) Expression of the ROAM mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: involvement of trans-acting regulatory elements and relation with the Tyl transcription. EMBO J 1: 1133–1139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Eibel H, Philippsen P (1984) Preferential integration of yeast transposable element Ty into a promoter region. Nature 307: 386–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eibel H, Gafner J, Stotz A, Philippsen P (1980) Characterisation of the yeast mobile element Tyl. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 45: 609–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eichinger DJ, Boeke JD (1988) The DNA intermediate in yeast Tyl element transposition copurifies with virus-like particles: cell-free Tyl transposition. Cell 54: 955966Google Scholar
  43. Eichinger DJ, Boeke JD (1990) A specific terminal structure is required for Ty1 transposition. Genes Dev 4: 324–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eisenmann DM, Dollard C, Winston F (1989) SPT15, the gene encoding the yeast TATA binding factor TFIID, is required for normal transcription initiation in vivo. Cell 58: 1183–1191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Eisenmann DM, Arndt KM, Ricupero SL, Rooney JW, Winston F (1992) SPT3 interacts with TFIID to allow normal transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev 6: 1319–1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Elder RT, St John TP, Stinchcomb DT, Davis RW (1981) Studies on the transposable element Tyl of yeast. I. RNA homologous to Tyl. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 45: 581–584Google Scholar
  47. Elder RT, Loh EY, Davis RW (1983) RNA from the yeast transposable element Tyl has both ends in the direct repeats, a structure similar to retrovirus RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 2432–2436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Errede B (1993) MCM1 binds to a transcriptional control element in Tyl. Mol Cell Biol 13: 57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Errede B, Ammerer G (1989) STE12, a protein involved in cell-type-specific transcription and signal transduction in yeast, is part of protein-DNA complexes. Genes Dev 3: 1349–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Errede B, Cardillo TS, Weyer B, Sherman F (1980) Studies on transposable elements in yeast. I. ROAM mutations causing increased expression of yeast genes: their activation by signals directed toward conjugation functions and their formation by insertion of TY1 repetitive elements. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 45: 593–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Errede B, Company M, Ferchak JD, Hutchison CA, Yarnell WS (1985) Activation regions in a yeast transposon have homology to mating type control sequences and to mammalian enhancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 5423–5427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Errede B, Company M, Hutchison CA (1987) Tyl sequence With enhancer and mating-type-dependent regulatory activities. Mol Cell Biol 7: 258–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Farabaugh P, Liao X-B, Belcourt M, Zhao H, Kapakos J, Clare J (1989) Enhancer and silencerlike sites within the transcribed portion of a Ty2 transposable element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 9: 4824–4834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Farabaugh PJ, Fink GR (1980) Insertion of the eukaryotic transposable element Tyl creates 5-base pair duplication. Nature 286: 352–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Farabaugh PJ, Vimaladithan A, Türkei S, Johnson R, Zhao H (1993a) Three downstream sites repress transcription of a Ty2 retrotransposon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 13: 2081–2090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Farabaugh PJ, Zhao H, Vimaladithan A (1993b) A novel programed frameshift expresses the POL3 gene of retrotransposon Ty3 of yeast: Frameshifting without tRNA slippage. Cell 74: 93–103Google Scholar
  57. Faßbender S, Brühl KH, Ciriacy M, Kück U (1994) Reverse transcriptase activity of an intron encoded polypeptide. EMBO J 13: 2075–2083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Fassler JS, Winston F (1988) Isolation and analysis of a novel class of suppressor of Ty insertion mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 118: 203–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fink GR (1987) Pseudogenes in yeasts? Cell 49: 5–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Flavell AJ (1992) Tyl-copia group retrotransposons and the evolution of retroelements in the eukaryotes. Genetica 86: 203–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fulton AM, Rathjen PD, Kingsman SM, Kingsman AJ (1988) Upstream and downstream transcription control signals in the yeast retrotransposon, Ty. Nucleic Acids Res 16: 5439–5458Google Scholar
  62. Gafner J, Philippsen P (1980) The yeast transposon Ty 1 generates duplications of target DNA on insertion. Nature 286: 414–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Garfinkel DJ, Boeke JD, Fink GR (1985) Ty element transposition: reverse transcriptase and virus-like particles. Cell 42: 507–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Garfinkel DJ, Hedge A-M, Youngren SD, Copeland TD (1991) Proteolytic processing of pol-TYB proteins from the yeast retrotransposon Tyl. J Virol 65: 4573–4581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Genbauffe FS, Chisholm GE, Cooper TG (1984) Tau, sigma, and delta. J Biol Chem 259: 10518–10525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Giroux CN, Mis JR, Pierce MK, Kohalmi SE, Kunz BA (1988) DNA sequence analysis of spontaneous mutations in the SUP4-o gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 8: 978–981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hansen LJ, Chalker DL, Sandmeyer SB (1988) Ty3, a yeast retrotransposon associated with tRNA genes, has homology to animal retroviruses. Mol Cell Biol 8: 52455256Google Scholar
  68. Hansen LJ, Chalker DL, Orlinsky KJ, Sandmeyer SB (1992) Ty3 GAG3 and POL3 genes encode the components of intracellular particles. J Virol 66: 1414–1424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Happel AM, Swanson MS, Winston F (1991) The SNE2, SNF5 and SNF6 genes are required for Ty transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 128: 69–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hirschman JE, Durbin KJ, Winston F (1988) Genetic evidence for promoter competition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 8: 4608–4615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Janetzky B, Lehle L (1992) Ty4, a new retrotransposon from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, flanked by tau-elements. J Biol Chem 267: 19798–19805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ji H, Moore DP, Blomberg MA, Braiterman LT, Voytas DF, Natsoulis G, Boeke JD (1993) Hotspots for un-selected Tyl transposition events on yeast chromosome III are near tRNA genes and LTR sequences. Cell 73: 1007–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kang X, Yadao F, Gietz RD, Kunz BA (1992) Elimination of the yeast RAD6 ubiquitin conjugase enhances base-pair transitions and transversions as well as transposition of the Ty element: implications for the control of spontaneous mutation. Genetics 130: 285294Google Scholar
  74. Karwan R, Kuhne C, Wintersberger U (1986) Ribonuclease H (70) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses cryptic reverse transcriptase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 5919–5923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kawakami K, Pande S, Faiola B, Moore DP, Boeke JD, Farabaugh PJ, Strathern JN, Nakamura Y, Garfinkel DJ (1993) A rare tRNA-Arg (CCU) that regulates Tyl element ribosomal frameshifting is essential for Tyl retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 135: 309–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kirchner J, Sandmeyer S (1993) Proteolytic processing of Ty3 proteins is required for transposition. J Virol 67: 1928Google Scholar
  77. Kupiec M, Petes TD (1988) Meiotic recombination between repeated transposable elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 8: 2942–2954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Laloux I, Dubois E, Dewerchin M, Jacobs E (1990) TEC1, a gene involved in the activation of Tyl and Tylmediated gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: cloning and molecular analysis. Mol Cell Biol 10: 3541–3550Google Scholar
  79. Laloux I, Jacobs E, Dubois E (1994) Involvement of SRE element of Tyl transposon in TEC1-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleic Acids Res 22: 999–1005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Laurent BC, Treich I, Carlson M (1993) The yeast SNF2/ SWI2 protein has DNA-stimulated ATPase activity required for transcriptional activation. Genes Dev 7: 583–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Levin HL, Weaver DC, Boeke JD (1990) Two related families of retrotransposons from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Cell Biol 10: 6791–6798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Li P, Stephenson AL, Kuiper LJ, Burell CJ (1993) Double-stranded strong-stop DNA and the second template switch in human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) DNA synthesis. Virology 194: 82–88Google Scholar
  83. Liao XB, Clare JJ, Farabaugh PJ (1987) The upstream activation site of a Ty2 element of yeast is necessary but not sufficient to promote maximal transcription of the element. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 8520–8524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Liebman S, Downs KM (1980) The RAD52 gene is not required for the function of the DELI mutator gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet 179: 703–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Liebman SW, Newnam G (1993) A ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, RAD6, affects the distribution of Tyl retro-transposon integration positions. Genetics 133: 499508Google Scholar
  86. Liebman SW, Shalit P, Picologlou S (1981) Ty elements are involved in the formation of deletions in DELI strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell 26: 401–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Löhning C, Ciriacy M (1994) The TYE7 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a putative bHLH-LZ transcription factor required for Tyl-mediated gene expression. Yeast (in press)Google Scholar
  88. Löhning C, Rosenbaum C, Ciriacy M (1993) Isolation of the TYE2 gene reveals its identity to SWI3 encoding a general transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet 24: 193–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McClanahan T, McEntee K (1984) Specific transcripts are elevated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol 4: 2356–2363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Melamed C, Nevo Y, Kupiec M (1992) Involvement of cDNA in homologous recombination between Ty elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 12: 1613–1620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mellor J, Fulton AM, Dobson MJ, Roberts NA, Wilson W, Kingsman AJ, Kingsman SM (1985a) The Ty transposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae determines the synthesis of at least three proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 13: 6249–6263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mellor J, Malim MH, Gull K, Tuite MF, McCready S, Dibbayawan T, Kingsman SM, Kingsman AJ (1985b) Reverse transcriptase activity and Ty RNA are associated with virus-like particles in yeast. Nature 318: 583586Google Scholar
  93. Moore SP, Garfinkel DJ (1994) Expression and partial purification of enzymatically active recombinant Tyl integrase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 1843–1847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Morawetz C, Hagen U (1990) Effect of irradiation and mutagenic chemicals on the generation Of ADH2 and ADH4 constitutive mutants in yeast: the inducibility of Ty transposition by UV and ethyl methane sulfonate. Mutat Res 229: 69–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Müller F, Brühl KH, Freidel K, Kowallik KV, Ciriacy M (1987) Processing of TY1 proteins and formation of Tyl virus-like particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet 207: 421–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Müller F, Laufer W, Pott U, Ciriacy M (1991) Characterization of products of TY1-mediated reverse transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet 226: 145–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Natsoulis G, Boeke JD (1991) New antiviral strategy using capsid-nuclease fusion proteins. Nature 352: 632635Google Scholar
  98. Natsoulis G, Thomas W, Roghmann M-C, Winston F, Boeke JD (1989) Tyl transposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is nonrandom. Genetics 123: 269–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nelbock P, Stucka R, Feldmann H (1985) Different patterns of transposable elements in the vicinity of tRNA genes in yeast: a possible clue to transcriptional modulation. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 366: 1041–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Oliver SG, Van der Aart QJM, Agostoni-Carbone ML, Aigle M, Alberghina L, Alexandraki D, Antoine G, Anwar R, Ballesta JPG, Benit P, Berben G, Bergantino E, Biteau N, Bolle PA, Bolotin-Fukuhara M, Brown A, Brown AJP, Buhler JM, Carcano C, Carignani G, Cederberg H, Chanet R, Contreras R, Crouzet M (1992) The complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome III. Nature 357: 38–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Paquin CE, Williamson VM (1984) Temperature effects on the rate of Ty transposition. Science 226: 53–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Parket A, Kupiec M (1992) Ectopic recombination between Ty elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not induced by DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol 12: 4441–4448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Pedersen MB (1985) DNA sequence polymorphisms in the genus Saccharomyces. II. Analysis of the genes RDN1, HIS4, LEU2 and Ty transposable elements in Carlsberg, Tuborg and 22 Bavarian brewing strains. Carlsberg Res Commun 50: 263–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Picologlou S, Brown N, Liebman SW (1990) Mutations in RAD6, a yeast gene encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, stimulate retrotransposition, Mol Cell Biol 10: 1017–1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Pochart P, Agoutin B, Fix C, Keith G, Heyman T (1993a) A very poorly expressed tRNA-Ser is highly concentrated together with replication primer initiator tRNAMet in the yeast Tyl virus-like particles. Nucleic Acids Res 21: 1517–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pochart P, Agoutin B, Rousset S, Chanet R, Doroszkiewicz V, Heyman T (1993b) Biochemical and electron microscope analyses of the DNA reverse transcripts present in the virus-like particles of the yeast transposon Tyl. Identification of second origin of Ty1DNA plus strand synthesis. Nucleic Acids Res 21: 35133520Google Scholar
  107. Primig M, Winkler H, Ammerer G (1991) The DNA binding and oligomerization domain of MCM1 is sufficient for its interaction with other regulatory proteins. EMBO J 10: 4209–4218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Roeder GS, Smith M, Lambie EJ (1984) Intrachromosomal movement of genetically marked Saccharomyces cerevisiae transposons by gene conversion. Mol Cell Biol 4: 703–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rolfe M (1985) UV-inducible proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet 9: 529–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rothstein R, Helms C, Rosenberg N (1987) Concerted deletions and inversions are caused by mitotic recombination between delta sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 7: 1198–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sandmeyer SB (1992) Yeast retrotransposons. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2: 705–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sandmeyer SB, Bilanchone VW, Clark DJ, Morcos P, Carle GF, Brodeur GM (1988) Sigma elements are position-specific for many different yeast tRNA genes. Nucleic Acids Res 16: 1499–1515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sandmeyer SB, Hansen LJ, Chalker DL (1990) Integration specificity of retrotransposons and retroviruses. Annu Rev Genet 24: 491–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Simchen G, Winston F, Styles CA, Fink GR (1984) Ty-mediated gene expression of the LYS2 and HIS4 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by the same SPT genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 2431–2434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Stucka R, Hauber J, Feldmann H (1987) One member of the tRNA (Glu) gene family in yeast codes for a minor GAGtRNA ( Glu) species and is associated with several short transposable elements. Curr Genet 12: 323–328Google Scholar
  116. Stucka R, Schwarzlose C, Lochmüller H, Häcker U, Feldmann H (1992) Molecular analysis of the yeast Ty4 element: homology with Tyl, copia, and plant retro-transposons. Gene 122: 119–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sung P, Prakash S, Prakash L (1988) The RAD6 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae polyubiquitinates histones, and its acidic domain mediates this activity. Genes Dev 2: 1476–1485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sutton PR, Liebman SW (1992) Rearrangements occurring adjacent to a single Tyl yeast retrotransposon in the presence and absence of full-length Tyl transcription. Genetics 131: 833–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Taguchi AK, Ciriacy M, Young ET (1984) Carbon source dependence of transposable element-associated gene activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 4: 61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Türkel S, Farabaugh PJ (1993) Interspersion of an unusual GCN4 activation site with a complex transcriptional repression site in Ty2 elements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 13: 2091–2103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Van Arsdell SW, Stettler GL, Thorner J (1987) The yeast repeated element sigma contains a hormone-inducible promotor. Mol Cell Biol 7: 749–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Varmus H, Brown P (1989) Retroviruses. In: Mobile DNA, American Society for Microbiology, Washington. DCGoogle Scholar
  123. Voytas DF, Boeke JD (1992) Yeast retrotransposon revealed. Nature 358: 717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Voytas DF, Boeke JD (1993) Yeast retrotransposons and tRNAs. Trends Genet 9: 421–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wallis JW, Chrebet G, Brodsky G, Rolfe M, Rothstein R (1989) A hyper-recombination mutation in S. cerevisae identifies a novel eukaryotic topoisomerase. Cell 58: 409–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Warmington JR, Waring RB, Newlon CS, Indge KJ, Oliver SG (1985) Nucleotide sequence characterization of Ty 1–17, a class II transposon from yeast. Nucleic Acids Res 13: 6679–6693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Warmington JR, Anwar R, Newlon CS, Waring RB, Davies RW, Indge KJ, Oliver SG (1986) A “hot-spot” for Ty transposition on the left arm of yeast chromosome III. Nucleic Acids Res 14: 3475–3485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Weinstock KG, Mastrangelo MF, Burkett TJ, Garfinkel DJ, Strathern JN (1990) Multimeric arrays of the yeast retrotransposon Ty. Mol Cell Biol 10: 2882–2892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wilke CM, Adams J (1992) Fitness effects of Ty transposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 131: 31–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Wilke CM, Heidler SH, Brown N, Liebman SW (1989) Analysis of yeast retrotransposon Ty insertions at the CANT locus. Genetics 123: 655–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wilke CM, Maimer E, Adams J (1992) The population biology and evolutionary significance of Ty elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetica 86: 155–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Williamson VM, Young ET, Ciriacy M (1981) Transposable elements associated with constitutive expression of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase II. Cell 23: 605–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Williamson VM, Cox D, Young ET, Russell DW, Smith M (1983) Characterization of transposable element-associated mutations that alter yeast alcohol dehydrogenase II expression. Mol Cell Biol 3: 20–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Winston F, Carlson M (1992) Yeast SNF/SWI transcriptional activators and the SPT/SIN chromatin connection. Trends Genet 8: 387–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Winston F, Chaleff DT, Valent B, Fink GR (1984a) Mutations affecting Ty-mediated expression of the HIS4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 107: 179–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Winston F, Durbin KJ, Fink GR (1984b) The SPT3 gene is required for normal transcription of Ty elements in S. cerevisiae. Cell 39: 675–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Winston F, Dollard C, Malone EA, Clare J, Kapakos JG, Farabaugh P, Minehart PL (1987) Three genes are required for trans-activation of Ty transcription in yeast. Genetics 115: 649–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Xu H, Boeke JD (1990) Localization of sequences required in cis for yeast Tyl element transposition near the long terminal repeats: analysis of mini-Tyl elements. Mol Cell Biol 10: 2695–2702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Xu H, Boeke JD (1991) Inhibition of Tyl transposition by mating pheromones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 11: 2736–2743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Youngren SD, Boeke JD, Sanders NJ, Garfinkel DJ (1988) Functional organisation of the retrotransposon Ty from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Ty protease is required for transposition. Mol Cell Biol 8: 1421–1431Google Scholar
  141. Yu K, Elder RT (1989) Some of the signals for 3’-end formation in transcription of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty-D15 element are immediately downstream of the initiation site. Mol Cell Biol 9: 2431–2444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Yu G, Fassler JS (1993) SPT13 (GAL11) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae negatively regulates activity of the MCM1 transcription factor in Tyl elements. Mol Cell Biol 13: 63–71PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. von Ciriacy
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für MikrobiologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany

Personalised recommendations