Cells, especially single cell organisms like yeast, must contend with frequent fluctuations in the availability of nutrients, variations in pH, temperature and external osmolarity, exposure to UV irradiation, dehydration and a large range of potentially toxic environmental compounds. In response to abrupt and adverse changes in the quality of their environment unicellular organisms invoke a variety of programmed stress responses. Characterization of these responses — the mechanisms involved in sensing stress, the signaling pathways that transmit that information to various parts of the cell and the resulting compensatory changes in gene expression and metabolism — permits us to understand how cells adapt and survive under non-ideal growth conditions.


Heat Stress Osmotic Stress Unfold Protein Response Fission Yeast Heat Shock Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aiba H, Kawaura R, Yamamoto E et al. (1998) Isolation and characterization of high-osmolarity-sensitive mutants of fission yeast. J Bacteriol 180: 5038–5043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aligue R, Akhavan-Niak H, Russell P (1994) A role for Hsp90 in cell cycle control: Weel tyrosine kinase activity requires interaction with Hsp90. EMBO J 13: 6099–6106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Buck V, Quinn J, Soto Pino T et al. (2001) Peroxide sensors for the fission yeast stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Biol Cell 12: 407–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Causton HC, Ren B, Koh SS et al. (2001) Remodeling of yeast genome expression in response to environmental changes. Mol Biol Cell 12: 323–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen D, Toone WM, Mata J et al. (2002/3) Global transcriptional responses of fission yeast to environmental stress. Mol Biol Cell (in press)Google Scholar
  6. Chung KS, Hoe KL, Kim KW, Yoo HS (1998) Isolation of a novel heat shock protein 70-like gene, pss1+ of Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologous to Hsp110/SSE subfamily. Gene 210: 143–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Danjoh I, Fujiyama A (1999) Ras-mediated signaling pathway regulates the expression of a low-molecular-weight heat-shock protein in fission yeast. Gene 236: 347–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Delaunay A, Isnard AD, Toledano MB (2000) H202 sensing through oxidation of the Yapl transcription factor. EMBO J 19: 5157–5166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fernandez F, Jannatipour M, Hellman U et al. (1996) A new stress protein: synthesis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase mRNA is induced by stress conditions but the enzyme is not essential for cell viability. EMBO J 15: 705–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gaits F, Degols G, Shiozaki K, Russell P (1998) Phosphorylation and association with the transcription factor Atfl regulate localization of Spcl/Styl stress-activated kinase in fission yeast. Genes Dev 12: 1464–1473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gallo GJ, Schuetz TJ, Kingston RE (1991) Regulation of heat shock factor in Schizosaccharomyces pombe more closely resembles regulation in mammals than in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 11: 281–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gallo GJ, Prentice H, Kingston RE (1993) Heat shock factor is required for growth at normal temperatures in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Cell Biol 13: 749–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gasch AP, Spellman PT, Kao CM et al. (2000) Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes. Mol Biol Cell 11: 4241–4257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gasch AP, Huang M, Metzner S et al. (2001) Genomic expression responses to DNA-damaging agents and the regulatory role of the yeast ATR homolog Meclp. Mol Biol Cell 12: 2987–3003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Goes FS, Martin J (2001) Hsp90 chaperone complexes are required for the activity and stability of yeast protein kinases Mikl, Weel and Swel. Eur J Biochem 268: 2281–2289Google Scholar
  16. Goossens A, de La Fuente N, Forment J et al. (2000) Regulation of yeast H+-ATPase by protein kinases belonging to a family dedicated to activation of plasma membrane transporters. Mol Cell Biol 20: 7654–7661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hohmann S (2002) Osmotic stress signaling and osmoadaptation in yeasts. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66: 300–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jamieson DJ (1992) Saccharomyces cerevisiae has distinct adaptive responses to both hydrogen peroxide and menadione. J Bacteriol 174: 6678–6681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jang YJ, Park SK, Yoo HS (1996) Isolation of an HSP12-homologous gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe suppressing a temperature-sensitive mutant allele of cdc4. Gene 172: 125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jannatipour M, Rokeach LA (1995) The Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue of the chaperone calnexin is essential for viability. J Biol Chem 270: 4845–4853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jannatipour M, Callejo M, Parodi AJ et al. (1998) Calnexin and BiP interact with acid phosphatase independently of glucose trimming and reglucosylation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Biochemistry 37: 17253–17261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jia ZP, McCullough N, Martel R et al. (1992) Gene amplification at a locus encoding a putative Na+/H+ antiporter confers sodium and lithium tolerance in fission yeast. EMBO J 11: 1631–1640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kato T Jr, Okazaki K, Murakami H et al. (1996) Stress signal, mediated by a Hogl-like MAP kinase, controls sexual development in fission yeast. FEBS Lett 378: 207–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kudo N, Taoka H, Toda T et al. (1999) A novel nuclear export signal sensitive to oxidative stress in the fission yeast transcription factor Papl. J Biol Chem 274: 15151–15158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuge S, Jones N, Nomoto A (1997) Regulation of yAP-1 nuclear localization in response to oxidative stress. EMBO J 16: 1710–1720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuge S, Toda T, Iizuka N, Nomoto A (1998) Crml (XpoI) dependent nuclear export of the budding yeast transcription factor yAP-1 is sensitive to oxidative stress. Genes Cells 3: 521–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuge S, Arita M, Murayama A et al. (2001) Regulation of the yeast Yaplp nuclear export signal is mediated by redox signal-induced reversible disulfide bond formation. Mol Cell Biol 15: 6139–6150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee J, Dawes IW, Roe JH (1995) Adaptive response of Schizosaccharomyces pombe to hydrogen peroxide and menadione. Microbiology 141: 3127–3132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lindquist S (1986) The heat shock response. Annu Rev Biochem 55: 1151–1191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu XD, Liu PC, Santaro N, Thiele DJ (1997) Conservation of a stress response: human heat shock transcription factors functionally substitute for yeast HSE EMBO J 16: 6466–6477Google Scholar
  31. Ma Y, Hendershot LM (2001) The unfolding tale of the unfolded protein response. Cell 107: 827–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Millar JBA, Buck V, Wilkinson MG (1995) Pyp1 and Pyp2 PTPases dephosphorylate an osmosensing MAP kinase controlling cell size at division in fission yeast. Genes Dev 9: 2117–2130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moradas-Ferreira P, Costa, V (2000) Adaptive response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reactive oxygen species: defenses, damage and death. Redox Rep 5: 277–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mori K, Ogawa N, Kawahara T et al. (2000) mRNA splicing-mediated C-terminal replacement of transcription factor Haclp is required for efficient activation of the unfolded protein response. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 4660–4665Google Scholar
  35. Morimoto RI (1998) Regulation of the heat shock transcriptional response: cross talk between a family of heat shock factors, molecular chaperones, and negative regulators. Genes Dev 12: 3788–3796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Munoz MI, Jimenez J (1999) Genetic interactions between Hsp90 and the Cdc2 mitotic ma- chinery in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Gen Genet 261: 242–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nguyen AN, Shiozaki K (1999) Heat-shock-induced activation of stress MAP kinase is regulated by threonine- and tyrosine-specific phosphatases. Genes Dev 13: 1653–1663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nguyen AN, Lee A, Place W, Shiozaki K (2000) Multistep phosphorelay proteins transmit oxidative stress signals to the fission yeast stress-activated protein kinase. Mol Biol Cell 11: 1169–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ohmiya R, Yamada H, Nakashima K et al. (1995) Osmoregulation of fission yeast: cloning of two distinct genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, one of which is responsible for osmotolerance for growth. Mol Microbiol 18: 963–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pahlman AK, Granath K, Ansell R, Alder L (2001) The yeast glycerol 3-phosphatases Gpplp and Gpp2p are required for glycerol biosynthesis and differentially involved in the cellular responses to osmotic, anaerobic, and oxidative stress. J Biol Chem 276: 3555–3563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pidoux AL, Armstrong J (1992) Analysis of the BiP gene and identification of an ER retention signal in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. EMBO J 11: 1583–1591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Powell MJ, Watts FZ (1990) Isolation of a gene encoding a mitochondrial HSP70 protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Gene 95: 105–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Quinn J, Findlay VJ, Dawson K et al. (2002) Distinct regulatory proteins control the graded transcriptional response to increasing H202 levels in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Biol Cell 13: 805–816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Saltsman KA, Prentice HL, Kingston RE (1999) Mutations in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe heat shock factor that differentially affect responses to heat and cadmium stress. Mol Gen Genet 261: 161–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Samejima I, Mackie S, Fantes PA (1997) Multiple modes of activation of the stress-responsive MAP kinase pathway in fission yeast. EMBO J 16: 6162–6170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Samejima I, Mackie S, Warbrick E et al. (1998) The fission yeast mitotic regulator win1+ encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase that phosphorylates and activates Wisl MAP kinase kinase in response to high osmolarity. Mol Biol Cell 9: 2325–2335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Sanchez-Piris M, Posas F, Alemany V et al. (2002) The serine/threonine kinase Cmk2 is required for oxidative stress response in fission yeast. J Biol Chem 277: 17722–17727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shieh JC, Wilkinson MG, Buck V et al. (1997) The Mcs4 response regulator coordinately controls the stress-activated Wakl-Wisl-Styl MAP kinase pathway and fission yeast cell cycle. Genes Dev 11: 1008–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shieh JC, Wilkinson MG, Millar JB (1998) The Winl mitotic regulator is a component of the fission yeast stress-activated Styl MAPK pathway. Mol Biol Cell 9: 311–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Shiozaki K, Russell P (1995) Cell cycle control linked to extracellular environment by MAP kinase pathway in fission yeast. Nature 378: 739–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shiozaki K, Russell P (1996) Conjugation, meiosis, and the osmotic stress response are regulated by Spc1 kinase through Atfl transcription factor in fission yeast. Genes Dev 10: 2276–2288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shiozaki K, Shiozaki M, Russell P (1997) Mcs4 mitotic catastrophe suppressor regulates the fission yeast cell cycle through the Wikl-Wisl-Spcl kinase cascade. Mol Biol Cell 8: 409–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Shiozaki K, Shiozaki M, Russell P (1998) Heat stress activates fission yeast Spcl/StyI MAPK by a MEKK-independent mechanism. Mol Biol Cell 9: 1339–1349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Siderius M, Mager WH (1997) General stress response: in search of a common denominator. In: Hohmann S, Mager W (eds) Yeast stress responses. Landes Co, Austin Schizosaccharomyces pombe atfl+ encodes a transcription factor required for sexual development and entry into stationary phase. EMBO J 14: 6193–6208Google Scholar
  55. Tibbles LA, Woodgett JR (1999) The stress-activated protein kinase pathways. Cell Mol Life Sci 55: 1230–1254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Toone WM, Kuge S, Samuels M et al. (1998) Regulation of the fission yeast transcription factor Pap1 by oxidative stress: requirement for the nuclear export factor Crml ( Exportin) and the stress-activated MAP kinase Styl/Spcl. Genes Dev 12: 1453–1463Google Scholar
  57. Toone WM, Jones N (1999) AP-1 transcription factors in yeast. Curr Opin Genet Dev 9: 5561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Toone WM, Morgan BA, Jones N (2001) Redox control of AP-1-like factors in yeast and beyond. Oncogene 20: 2336–2346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Travers KJ, Patil CK, Wodicka L et al. (2000) Functional and genomic analyses reveal an essential coordination between the unfolded protein response and ER-associated degradation. Cell 101: 249–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Usui T, Yoshida M, Kasahara K et al. (1997) A novel HSP70 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe that confers K-252a resistance. Gene 189: 43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Warbrick E, Fantes PA (1991) The wisl protein kinase is a dosage-dependent regulator of mitosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. EMBO J 10: 4291–4299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Wilkinson MG, Samuels M, Takeda T et al. (1996) The Atfl transcription factor is a target for the Styl stress-activated MAP kinase pathway in fission yeast. Genes Dev 10: 2289–2301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yan C, Lee LH, Davis LI (1998) Crmlp mediates regulated nuclear export of a yeast AP-1like transcription factor. EMBO J 17: 7416–7429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yoshida H, Yanagi H, Yura T (1995) Cloning and characterization of the mitochondrial HSP60-encoding gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Gene 167: 163–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Young JC, Moarefi I, Hartl OF (2001) Hsp90: a specialized but essential protein-folding tool. J Cell Biol 154: 267–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Mark Toone
  • Nic Jones

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations