The purpose of this study is the elaboration of a concept of the lung air sac system basing on comparative and functional anatomical investigations which may serve as the basis of further physiological studies Using a specially devised injection technique more than 500 birds of 150 species, from penguins to song birds, were injected with silicon-rubber. In this manner the lung air sac system was demonstrated in connection with the skeleton and then prepared considering the lung construction and the connection of the air sacs. Additionally, 45 species after fixation were prepared in the usual manner. The microscopical structure of the lung air sac system was studied on membrane preparations of the air sac walls and on histological sections through the lung.


Song Bird Mammalian Lung Respiratory Apparatus Bronchial System Primary Bronchus 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Rainer Duncker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity of Gießen, GermanyGießenGermany

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