THE idea that troublesome organisms can be killed by heat treatments originated with Louis Pasteur. Most bacteria, viruses, and protozoa have inactivation temperatures that are much higher than 45 ° C, the upper limit for many insects. Indeed, heat treatment (pasteurization) of dairy products for tuberculosis and other disease organisms typically involves heating at 62 ° C for 30 minutes, or 72 ° C for 16 seconds. Since the lethal temperatures of most disease organisms are considerably higher than those of their hosts, it seems therefore not at all obvious that animals would have invented heat treatment long before Louis Pasteur thought of it. Nevertheless, it is now clear that fever, one form of heat treatment, is a common survival mechanism (Kluger, 1979).


Horseshoe Crab Lethal Temperature Thermal Preference Febrile Response Disease Organism 
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