Simulated Head Impacts with Upper Interior Structures Using Rigid and Anatomic Brain Models
This article first describes modeling and analysis of relatively rigid head impacts with upper interior structures and compares results with laboratory test measurements. In addition to demonstrating the capacity of a well defined model to accurately replicate dynamic response and to predict levels of injury mitigation obtainable from structural modification, such models are also capable of estimating physical quantities (e.g. detailed stress/strain patterns) known to affect the functional capacity of brain tissue. Measuring these quantities in a test program would be virtually impossible. To provide estimates of such quantities, a first generation anatomic brain model was developed to estimate strains induced in the brain as a result of typical head impacts sustained in automotive collisions. The latter model is viewed as the first step in a complicated process, leading towards the ability to assess soft tissue injuries, and to the development of an expanded head-injury criteria which addresses specific forms of brain injuries known to result from automobile crashes.
KeywordsFoam Transportation Rubber Strain Hardening Flange
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.D. W. Stillman, J. O. Hallquist, R. Rainsberger, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, “INGRID: A Three-Dimensional Mesh Generator for Modeling Nonlinear Systems”, Revised July 1985, Report No. UCID-20506.Google Scholar
- 2.J. O. Hallquist, D.J. Benson, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, “DYNA3D User’s Manual (Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis of Structures in Three-Dimensions), Revised March 1986, Report No. UCID-19592.Google Scholar
- 3.B. E. Brown, J.O. Hallquist, R. Rainsberger, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, “TAURUS: An Interactive Post Processor For The Analysis Codes NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TAC03D, and GEMINI”, Revised May 1984, Report No. UCID-19392.Google Scholar
- 4.D. Benson, J. O.. Hallquist, (LLNL), M. Igrarshi, K. Shimomaki, M.Mizuno, Suzuki Motor Co. Ltd, J.pan, “The Application of DYNA3D to Large Scale Crashworthiness Calculation”, 1986 ASME International Computers in Engineering Conference, Chicago, July 20–26, 1986.Google Scholar
- 5.DiMasi, Frank P., US/DOT/RSPA/VNTSC “Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Head Impacts with Vehicle Upper Interiors” Technical Memorandum No. TSC-HS-876–4, September, 1988.Google Scholar
- 6.H. R. Lissner, M. Lebow, and F. G. Evans, “Experimental Studies on the Relation Between Acceleration and Intracranial Pressure Changes in Man,” Surgery. Gynecology, and Obstetrics. Volume 113,1960, pp. 329–338Google Scholar
- 7.L. Thibault, T. Generelli, and S. Margolis, “Animal, Physical and Analytical Models for Use in the Development of Improved Head Injury Criteria” University of Pennsylvania, Department of Bioengineering and Department of Neurosurgery, DOT Report No. HS 807 481, Volume 1, March, 1989.Google Scholar
- 8.Susan S. Margolis, “Biomechanics of Traumatic Coma in the Primate”, Doctoral Thesis, Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 1987.Google Scholar
- 11.P. Finnigan, A. Hathaway and W. Lorenson, “Merging CAT and FEM”, Mechanical Engineering, Computers in Mechanical Engineering Series, July, 1990.Google Scholar