The Holocene: Considerations with Regard to its Climate and Climate Archives

  • Jörg F. W. Negendank
Part of the GKSS School of Environmental Research book series (GKSS)


The Holocene as the youngest time of Earth’s history is a warm period belonging to the last cold phase (ice-age) since 55 million years. The climate evolution since 11,600 yr B.P. is basically described by using temperature estimations from Greenland ice cores and vegetation changes (pollen assemblage zones) oscillating around an average temperature with an interval of around ± 1–3°C. These main climatic oscillations can be refined by using multi-proxy data on an annualdecadal resolution revealing trends, fluctuations and short events, giving hints to possible pace makers. However, we have to keep in mind that these climatic descriptions are generalizations due to the sensitivities of the used proxy and may reflect only a local instead of a regional or global signal. Therefore, an integration of many proxy-records is necessary to reconstruct the dominating climate regime.


Tree Ring Pollen Assemblage Medieval Warm Period Temperate Deciduous Forest Annual Resolution 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jörg F. W. Negendank

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