Clothes help to regulate skin temperature and moisture, and protect from environmental injuries. They should be safe, with no toxicity, carcinogenicity or allergenicity. Reports of clothing dermatitis are frequently individual, except from rare epidemics [1, 2] occurring from furs dyed byp-phenylenediamine (PPD) and derivatives in the 1920s [3], from dyed nylon stockings in the 1940s [3, 4], or from black “velvet” clothing and blouses in the 1980s [5, 6]. Epidemiological studies regarding this topic are most often not controlled, and habitually report a frequency of positive patch tests to textile additives, mainly dyes or finishes [7–15]. Thus, the prevalence of sensitization to substances potentially implicated in textile dermatitis is around 1–5% of tested patients, but the clinical relevance of such tests is sometimes questionable. It is difficult to determine its exact incidence for these reasons, but some data suggest that clothing dermatitis is not rare [4, 14].


Contact Dermatitis Allergic Contact Dermatitis Free Formaldehyde Melamine Formaldehyde Disperse Yellow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Roed-Petersen J, Batsberg W, Larsen E (1990) Contact dermatitis from Naphtol AS. Contact Dermatitis 22: 161–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kojima S, Momma J, Kaniwa MA, Ikarashi Y, Sato M, Nakaji Y, Kurokawa Y, Nakamura A (1990) Phosgene (chlorophenyl)hydrazones, strong sensitizers found in yellow sweaters bleached with sodium hypochlorite, defined as causative allergens for contact dermatitis by an experimental screening method in animals. Contact Dermatitis 23: 129–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Foussereau J (1987) Les eczémas allergiques cosmétologiques, thérapeutiques et vestimentaires. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hatch KL, Maibach HI (1985) Textile dye dermatitis. A review. J Am Acad Dermatol 12: 1079–1092Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hausen BM (1993) Contact allergy to dispese blue 106 and bue 124 in black “velvet” clothes. Contact Dermatitis 28: 169–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Menezes-Brandao F, Altermatt C, Pecegueiro M, Bordalo O, Foussereau J (1985) Contact dermatitis to Disperse Blue 106. Contact Dermatitis 13: 80–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dooms-Goossens A (1992) Textile dye dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 27: 321–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Manzini BM, Motolese A, Conti A, Ferdani G, Seidenari S (1996) Sensitisation to reactive textile dyes in patients with contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 34: 172–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Balato N, Lembo G, Patruno C, Ayala F (1990) Prevalence of textile dye contact sensitisation. Contact Dermatitis 23: 111–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seidenari S, Manzini BM, Danese P (1991) Contact sensitisation to textile dyes: description of 100 subjects. Contact Dermatitis 24: 253–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seidenari S, Manzini BM, Schiavi ME, Motolese A (1995) Prevalence of contact allergy to non-disperse azo dyes for natural fibers: a study in 1814 consecutive patients. Contact Dermatitis 33: 118–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Borrego L, Ortiz-Frutos J (1996) Textile dye dermatitis: Spanish experience. J Am Acad Dermatol 34: 715–716Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lisboa C, Barros MA, Azenha A (1994) Contact dermatitis from textile dyes. Contact Dermatitis 31: 9–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sherertz EF (1992) Clothing dermatitis: practical aspects for the clinician. Am J Contact Dermat 3: 55–64Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seidenari S, Mantovani L, Manzini BM, Pignatti M (1997) Cross-sensitizations between azo dyes and para-amino compound. A study of 236 azo-dye-sensitive subjects. Contact Dermatitis 36: 91–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hatch KL, Maibach HI (1986) Textile chemical finish dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 14: 1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cronin E (1963) Formalin textile dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 75: 267–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van der Veen JPW, Neering H, Haan P de, Bruynzeel DP (1988) Pigmented purpuric clothing dermatitis due to Disperse Blue 85. Contact Dermatitis 19: 222–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fowler JF, Skinner SM, Belsito DV (1992) Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde resins in permanent press clothing: an underdiagnosed cause of generalised dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 27: 962–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nakagawa M, Kawai K, Kawai (1996) Multiple azo disperse dye sensitisation mainly due to group sensitizations to azo dyes. Contact Dermatitis 34: 6–11Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mathelier-Fusade P, Aïssaoui M, Chabane MH, Mounedji N, Leynadier F (1996) Chronic generalised eczema caused by multiple dye sensitisation. Am J Contact Dermatitis 7: 224–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hatch KL, Maibach HI (1985) Textile fiber dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 12: 1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rietschel RL, Fowler JF (1994) Fisher’s contact dermatitis, 4th edn, chapter 19. Wiliams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 358–392Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Inoue A, Ishido I, Shoji A, Yamada H (1997) Textile dermatitis from silk. Contact Dermatitis 37: 185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tanaka M, Kobayashi S, Miyakawa S-I (1993) Contact dermatitis from nylon 6 in Japan. Contact Dermatitis 28: 250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kerre S, Devos L, Verhoeve L, Bruze M, Gruvberger B, Dooms-Goossens A (1996) Contact allergy to diethylthiourea in a wet suit. Contact Dermatitis 35: 176–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reynaers A, Goossens A (1998) La diéthylthiourée: allergène de contact dans divers objets en néoprène. Lettre du GERDA 15: 60–61Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Diepgen TL, Stabler A, Hornstein OP (1990) Textilunverträglichkeit beim atopischen Ekzem. Eine kontrollierte klinische Studie. Z Hautkr 65: 907–910Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hatch KL, Maibach HI (1995) Textile dermatitis: an update (I). Resins, additives and fibers. Contact Dermatitis 32: 319–326Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Andersen KE, Hamann K (1982) Cost benefit of patch testing with textile finish resins. Contact Dermatitis 8: 64–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schorr WF, Keran E, Plotka E (1974) Formaldehyde allergy. The quantitative analysis of american clothing for free formaldehyde and its relevance in clinical practice. Arch Dermatol 110: 73–76Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marks JG, Belsito DV, DeLeo VA, Fowler JF, Fransway AF, Maibach HI, et al (1998) North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test results for the detection of delayed-type hypersensitivity to topical allergens. J Am Acad Dermatol 38: 911–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Foussereau J, Dallara JM (1986) Purity of standardized textile dye allergens: a thin layer chromatography study. Contact Dermatitis 14: 303–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cavelier C, Foussereau J, Tomb R (1988) Allergie de contact et colorants (2e partie). Cahiers Notes Doc INRS 133: 615–647Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cavelier C, Foussereau J, Tomb R (1988) Allergie de contact et colorants (le partie). Cahiers Notes Doc INRS 132: 421–443Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hatch KL, Maibach HI (1995) Textile dye dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 32: 631–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cronin E (1968) Studies in contact dermatitis, dyes in clothing. Trans St John’s Hosp Derm Soc 54: 156–164Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cronin E (1968) Studies in contact dermatitis, Nylon stocking dyes. Trans St John’s Hosp Derm Soc 54: 165–169Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cronin E (1980) Contact dermatitis. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 36–92Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dabestani R, Reszka KJ, Davis DG, Sik RH, Chignell CF (1991) Spectroscopic studies of cutaneous photosensitizing agents-XVI. Disperse blue 35. Photochem Photobiol 54: 37–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hausen BM, Sawall EM (1989) Sensitisation experiments with textile dyes in guinea pigs. Contact Dermatitis 20: 27–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dejobert Y, Martin P, Thomas P, Bergoend H (1995) Multiple azo dye sensitisation revealed by the wearing of a black “velvet” body. Contact Dermatitis 33: 276–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Massone L, Anonide A, Isola V, Borghi S (1991) Two cases of multiple azo dye sensitisation. Contact Dermatitis 24: 60–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Foussereau J (1986) Contact dermatitis to Basic Red 46. Contact Dermatitis 15: 106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Noferi A, Ferrante E, Testa A (1966) Dermatosi allergiche da nero diretto colorante azoico solubile. Folia Allerg 13: 478–480Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wilson HTH, Cronin E (1971) Dermatitis from dyed uniforms. Br J Dermatol 85: 67–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bergh M, Menne T, Karlberg AT (1994) Colophony in paper-based surgical clothing. Contact Dermatitis 31: 332–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hayakawa R, Ogino Y, Suzuki M, Kaniwa M (1994) Allergic contact dermatitis from paratertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin ( PTBP-F-R ). Contact Dermatitis 30: 187–188Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arisu K, Hayakawa R, Ogino Y, Matsunaga K, Kaniwa M-A (1992) Tinuvin P in a spandex tape as a cause of clothing dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 26: 311–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Niklasson B, Björkner B (1989) Contact allergy to the UV-absorber Tinuvin P in plastics. Contact Dermatitis 21: 330–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Krupa Shankar DS (1992) contact urticaria induced by Semecarpus anacardium. Contact Dermatitis 26:200Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kofoed ML (1984) Contact dermatitis to formaldehyde in fabric softeners. Contact Dermatitis 11: 254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Moreau A, Dompmartin A, Castel B, Remond B, Michel M, Leroy D (1994) Contact dermatitis from a textile flame retardant. Contact Dermatitis 31: 86–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hafner J, Ruegger M, Kralicek P, Elsner P (1995). Airborne irritant contact dermatitis from metal dust adhering to semisynthetic working suits. Contact Dermatitis 32: 285–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Francalanci S, Angelini G, Balato N, Berardesca E, Cusano F, Gaddoni G, Lisi P, Lodi A, Schena D, Sertoli A (1995) Effectiveness of diperse dyes mix in detection of contact allergy to textile dyes: an Italian multicentre study. Contact Dermatitis 33: 351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sousa-Basto A, Azenha A (1994) Textile dye mixes: useful screening tests for textile dye allergy Contact Dermatitis 30: 189–190Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sertoli A, Francalanci S, Giorgini S (1994) Sensitisation to textile disperse dyes: validity of reduced-concentration patch tests and a new mix. Contact Dermatitis 31: 47–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christophe-J. Le Coz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations