Basidiomycota: Homobasidiomycetes

  • D. S. Hibbett
  • R. G. Thorn
Part of the The Mycota book series (MYCOTA, volume 7B)


Homobasidiomycetes include the mushroomforming fungi and related taxa. Over 13000 species of homobasidiomycetes have been described, which is equal to approximately 23% of all known species of eumycota (Hawksworth et al. 1995). Homobasidiomycetes occur in all terrestrial ecosystems, including deserts, and there are also a few aquatic species, in both marine and freshwater habitats (Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer 1979; Desjardin et al. 1995). The oldest unambiguous homobasidiomycete fossils are from the mid-Cretaceous, but indirect evidence, including molecular clock dating, suggests that the group may have been in existence by the late Triassic (ca. 200 ma; Berbee and Taylor 1993; Hibbett et al. 1997a). In contemporary ecosystems, homobasidiomycetes function as saprotrophs, plant pathogens, and partners in diverse symbioses, including ectomycorrhizae. Thus, homobasidiomycetes play a significant role in the carbon cycle, and they have a profound economic impact on agricultural industries, especially forestry. Finally, homobasidiomycetes are culturally significant, having served as food, drugs, and spiritual symbols in diverse human societies.


Fruiting Body Ambrosia Beetle Spore Morphology High Basidiomycete Lentinus Tigrinus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams GC, Klomparens KL, Hennon PE (1995) Unusual reticulated parenthesomes surround the dolipore of a hyphomycete with clamp connections, Ditangifibulae dikaryotae gen. et sp. nov. Mycologia 87: 909–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agerer R (1986) “Cyphellaceae” versus Tricholomataceae, or what is a family? In: La Famiglia delle Tricholomataceae, Atti del Convegno Internazionale del 10–15 settembre 1984. Centro Studi per la Flora Mediterranea, Borgo Val di Taro, Italy, pp 9–27Google Scholar
  3. Ahmadjian V (1993) The lichen symbiosis. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Anke H, Stadler M, Mayer A, Sterner 0 (1995) Secondary metabolites with nematicidal and antimicrobial activity from nematophagous fungi and Ascomycetes Can J Bot 73 (Suppl 1): S932 - S939Google Scholar
  5. Arita I (1979) Cytological studies on Pholiota. Rep Tottori Mycol Inst 17: 1–118Google Scholar
  6. Arpin N, Fiasson J-L (1971) The pigments of basidiomycetes: their chemotaxonomic interest. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basisidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 63–98Google Scholar
  7. Bakkeren G, Gibbard B, Yee A, Froelinger E, Leong S, Kronstad J (1992) The a and b loci of Ustilago maydis hybridize to DNAs from other smut fungi. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 5: 347–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandoni RJ (1984) The Tremellales and Auriculariales: an alternative classification. Trans Mycol Soc Jpn 25: 489–530Google Scholar
  9. Bandoni RJ (1987) Taxonomic overview of the Tremellales. Stud Mycol 30: 87–110Google Scholar
  10. Bandoni RJ, Oberwinkler F (1982) Stilbotulasnella: a new genus in the Tulasnellaceae. Can J Bot 60: 1875–1879Google Scholar
  11. Barron GL (1977) The nematode-destroying fungi. Canadian Biological Publications, GuelphGoogle Scholar
  12. Barron GL (1988) Microcolonies of bacteria as a nutrient source for lignicolous and other fungi. Can J Bot 66: 2505–2510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barron GL (1992) Lignolytic and cellulolytic fungi as predators and parasites. In: Carroll GC, Wicklow DT (eds) The fungal community: its organization and role in the ecosystem. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 311–326Google Scholar
  14. Barron GL, Dierkes Y (1977) Nematophagous fungi: Hohenbuehelia, the perfect state of Nematoctonus. Can J Bot 55: 3054–3062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barron GL, Thorn RG (1987) Destruction of nematodes by species of Pleurotus. Can J Bot 65: 774–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bas C (1969) Morphology and subdivision of Amanita and a monograph of its section Lepidella. Persoonia 5: 285–579Google Scholar
  17. Bas C, Noordeloos ME, Vellinga EC (1990) Flora agaricina Neerlandica, vol 2. AA Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  18. Batra LR (1979) Insect-fungus symbiosis: nutrition, mutualism, commensalism. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Batra LR, Batra SWT (1979) Termite-fungus mutualism. In: Batra LR (ed) Insect-fungus symbiosis: nutrition, mutualism, commensalism. John Wiley, New York, pp 117–163Google Scholar
  20. Baura G, Szaro TM, Bruns TD (1992) Gastrosuillus larici-nus is a recent derivative of Suillus grevillei: molecular evidence. Mycologia 84: 592–597Google Scholar
  21. Beaver RA (1989) Insect-fungus realtionships in the bark and ambrosia beetles. In: Wilding N, Collins NM, Hammond PM, Webber JF (eds) Insect-fungus interactions. Academic Press, London, pp 121–144Google Scholar
  22. Begerow D, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1997) Phylogenetic studies on nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of smut fungi and related taxa. Can J Bot 75: 2045–2056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berbee ML, Taylor JW (1993) Dating the evolutionary radiations of the true fungi. Can J Bot 71: 1114–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Berbee ML, Wells K (1989) Light and electron microscopic studies of meiosis and basidium ontogeny in Clavicorona pyxidata. Mycologia 81: 20–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Besl H, Dorsch R, Fischer M (1996) Zur verwandtschaftlichen Stellung der Gattung Melanogaster ( Melanogastraceae, Basidiomycetes). Z Mykol 62: 195–199Google Scholar
  26. Besson M, Froment A (1968) Observation d’un capuchon septal de type polypore hors des polyporacées. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 84: 485–488Google Scholar
  27. Binder M, Besl H, Bresinsky A (1997) Agaricales oder Boletales? Molekularbiologische Befunde zur Zuordnung eineger umstrittener Taxa. Z Mykol 63: 189–196Google Scholar
  28. Blanchette RA (1991) Delignification by wood-decay fungi. Annu Rev Phytopathol 29: 381–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Blanchette RA, Burnes TA, Leatham GF, Effland MJ (1988) Selection of white-rot fungi for biopulping. Biomass 15: 93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bodman MC (1938) Morphology and cytology of Guepinia spathularia. Mycologia 30: 635–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Boehm EWA, McLaughlin DJ (1989) Phylogeny and ultra-structure in Eocronartium musicola: meiosis and basidial development. Mycologia 81: 98–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Boidin J (1951) Recherche de la tyrosinase et alccase chez les Basidiomycetes en culture pure. Rev Mycol 16: 173–197Google Scholar
  33. Boidin J (1958) Essai biotaxonomique sur les hydnés et les corticiés. Rev Mycol Mem 6: 1–388Google Scholar
  34. Boidin J, Mugnier J, Canales R (1998) Taxonomie molecu- laire des Aphyllophorales. Mycotaxon 66: 445–491Google Scholar
  35. Botha WJ, Eicker A (1991) Cultural studies on the genus Termitomyces in South Africa. I. Macro-and microscopic characters of basidiome context cultures. Mycol Res 95: 435–443Google Scholar
  36. Bresinsky A, Rennschmid A (1971) Pigmentmerkmale, Organisationsstufen und systematische Gruppen bei höheren Pilzen. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 84: 313–329Google Scholar
  37. Brodie HJ (1951 a) The function of the cups of Polyporus conchifer. Science 114:636Google Scholar
  38. Brodie HJ (195lb) The splash-cup dispersal mechanism in plants. Can J Bot 29:224–234Google Scholar
  39. Brodie HT (1975) The bird’s nest fungi. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  40. Bruns TD, Szaro TM (1992) Rate and mode differences between nuclear and mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA genes in mushrooms. Mol Biol Evol 9: 836–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Bruns TD, Fogel R, White TJ, Palmer JD (1989) Accelerated evolution of a false truffle from a mushroom ancestor. Nature 339: 140–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bruns TD, White TJ, Taylor JW (1991) Fungal molecular systematics. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 22: 525–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bruns TD, Szaro TM, Gardes M, Cullings KW, Pan JJ, Taylor DL, Horton TR, Kretzer A, Garbelotto M, Li Y (1998) A sequence database for the identification of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by phylogenetic analysis. Mol Ecol 7: 257–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Buller AHR (1922) Researches on fungi, vol 2. Longmans, Green, and Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Burdsall HH, Miller OK (1975) A reevaluation of Panellus and Dictyopanus ( Agaricales ). Beih Nova Hedwigia 51: 79–91Google Scholar
  46. Calonge FD (1969) Electron microscope studies on Tomentella. I. Ultrastructure of the vegetative hyphae. Arch Mikrobiol 65: 136–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Casselton LA, Kües U (1994) Mating-type genes in homobasidiomycetes. The Mycota I. Growth, differentiation and sexuality. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 307–321Google Scholar
  48. Castellano MA, Trappe JM, Maser Z, Maser C (1989) Key to spores of the genera of hypogeous fungi of north temperate forests. Mad River Press, Eureka, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  49. Castello JD, Shaw CG, Furniss MM (1976) Isolation of Cryptoporus volvatus and Fomes pinicola from Dendroctonus pseudotsugae. Phytopathology 66: 1431–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Chapela IH, Rehner SA, Schultz TR, Mueller UG (1994) Evolutionary history of the symbiosis between fungus-growing ants and their fungi. Science 266: 1691–1694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cherrett JM, Powell RJ, Stradling DJ (1989) The mutual-ism between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus. In: Wicding N, Collins NM, Hammond PM, Webber JF (eds) Insect-fungus interactions. Academic Press, London, pp 93–120Google Scholar
  52. Christiansen MP (1960) Danish resupinate fungi, part II. Homobasidiomycetes. Dan Bot Ark 19: 63–388Google Scholar
  53. Clémençon H (1997) Anatomie der Hymenomyceten. F Flück-Wirth, TeufenGoogle Scholar
  54. Coker WC, Couch JN (1928) The Gasteromycetes of the eastern United States and Canada. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  55. Colgan W, Castellano MA, Spatafora JW (1997) Systematics of the Hysterangiaceae Inoculum 48(3):7 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  56. Cooke RC, Whipps JM (1993) Ecophysiology of the fungi. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  57. Corner EJH (1932) The fruit-body of Polystictus xanthopus Fr. Ann Bot 46: 71–111Google Scholar
  58. Corner EJH (1950) A monograph of Clavaria and allied genera. Ann Bot Mem 2: 1–740Google Scholar
  59. Corner EJH (1966) A monograph of cantharelloid fungi. Ann Bot Mem 2: 1–255Google Scholar
  60. Corner EJH (1970) Supplement to “A monograph of Clavaria and allied genera.” Beih Nova Hedwigia 33: 1–299Google Scholar
  61. Corner EJH (1972) Studies in the basidium-spore spacing and the Boletus spore. Gard Bull 26: 159–194Google Scholar
  62. Corner EJH (1981) The agaric genera Lentinus, Panus, and Pleurotus. Beih Nova Hedwigia 69: 1–169Google Scholar
  63. Corner EJH (1984) Ad Polyporaceas III: Piptoporus, Buglossoporus, Laetiporus, Meripilus, and Bondarzewia. Beih Nova Hedwigia 78: 136–222Google Scholar
  64. Corner EJH (1991) Ad Polyporaceas VII: the xanthochroic polypores. Beih Nova Hedwigia 101: 1–175Google Scholar
  65. Cotter HVT, Miller OK (1985) Sclerotia of Boletinellus merulioides in nature. Mycologia 77: 927–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Cowling EB, Merrill W (1966) Nitrogen in wood and its role in wood deterioration. Can J Bot 44: 1539–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cullings KW, Szaro TM, Bruns TD (1996) Evolution of extreme specialization within a lineage of ectomycorrhizal epiparasites. Nature 379: 63–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Currah RS, Zalmer C (1992) A key and notes for the genera of fungi mycorrhizal with orchids and a new species in the genus Epulorhiza. Rep Tottori Mycol Inst 30: 43–59Google Scholar
  69. Currah RS, Smreciu EA, Hambleton S (1990) Mycorrhizae and mycorrhizal fungi of boreal species of Platanthera and Coeloglossum ( Orchidaceae ). Can J Bot 68: 1171–1181Google Scholar
  70. Danielson RM (1984) Ectomycorrhizal associations in jack pine stands in northeastern Alberta. Can J Bot 62: 932–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Davidson RW, Campbell WA, Vaughn DB (1942) Fungi causing decay of living oaks in the eastern United States and their identification. US Dept Agric Tech Bull 785, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  72. Desjardin DE (1995) A preliminary accounting of the worldwide members of Mycena sect. Sacchariferae. Bibl Mycol 159: 1–89Google Scholar
  73. Desjardin DE, Martínez-Peck L, Rajchenberg M (1995) An unusual psychrophilic aquatic agaric from Argentina. Mycologia 87: 547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Dix NJ, Webster J (1995) Fungal ecology. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  75. Donk MA (1959) Notes on Cyphellaceae I. Persoonia 1: 25–110Google Scholar
  76. Donk MA (1962) Notes on Cyphellaceae II. Persoonia 3: 331–348Google Scholar
  77. Donk MA (1964) A conspectus of the families of the Aphyllophorales. Persoonia 3: 199–324Google Scholar
  78. Donk MA (1971) Progress in the study of the classification of the higher basidiomycetes. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 3–25Google Scholar
  79. Douget G (1962) Digitatispora marina n.g., n.sp., Basidiomycète marin. CR Hebd Séances Acad Sci Paris 254:4336–4338Google Scholar
  80. Douget G (1967) Nia vibrissa Moore et Meyers, remarquable basidiomycète marin. CR Hebd Séances Acad Sci Paris, Sér D, 265:1780–1783Google Scholar
  81. Dring DM (1973) Gasteromycetes. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds) The Fungi, an advanced treatise, vol IV B. Academic Press, New York, pp 451–478Google Scholar
  82. D’Souza TM, Boominathan K, Reddy CA (1996) Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 3739–3744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Duncan EG, Galbraith MH (1972) Post-meiotic events in the Homobasidiomycetidae. Trans Br Mycol Soc 58: 387–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Durrall DM, Todd AW, Trappe JM (1994) Decomposition of “C-labelled substrates by ectomycorrhizal fungi in association with Douglas fir. New Phytol 127: 725–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Eaton RA, Hale MDC (1993) Wood: decay, pests and protection. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  86. Ehrlich HG, McDonough ES (1949) The nuclear history in the basidia and basidiospores of Schizophyllum commune Fries. Am J Bot 36: 360–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Eriksson J (1954) Ramaricium n. gen., a corticioid member of the Ramaria group. Sven Bot Tids Sci 48:188–198Google Scholar
  88. Eriksson J, Ryvarden L (1976) The Corticiaceae of North Europe, vol 4, Hyphodermella — Mycoacia. Fungiflora, OsloGoogle Scholar
  89. Eriksson KE, Blanchette RA, Ander P (1990) Microbial and enzymatic degradation of wood and wood components. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Esser K (1967) Die Verbreitung der Incompatibilität bei Thallophyten. In: Ruhland W (ed) Handb Pflanzenphysiol 18. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 321–343Google Scholar
  91. Eyme J, Parriaud H (1970) Au sujet de l’infrastructure des hyphes de Clathrus cancellatus Tournefort, champignon gasteromycete. CR Hebd Séances Acad Sci Paris, Ser D, 270: 1890–1892Google Scholar
  92. Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. American Phytopathological Society, St PaulGoogle Scholar
  93. Fayod V (1889) Prodrome d’une histoire naturelle des agaracinées. Ann Sci Bot, Sér 7,9: 181–411Google Scholar
  94. Felsenstein J (1978) Cases in which parsimony or compatibility methods will be positively misleading. Syst Zool 27: 401–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Fermor TR (1983) Fungal enzymes produced during degra- dation of bacteria. Trans Br Mycol Soc 80: 357–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Fisher PJ, Stradling DJ, Pegler DN (1994) Leucoagaricus basidiomata from a live nest of the leaf-cutting ant Atta cephalotes. Mycol Res 98: 884–888Google Scholar
  97. Flegler SL, Hooper GR, Fields WG (1976) Ultrastructural and cytochemical changes in the basidiomycete dolipore septum associated with fruiting, Can J Bot 54: 2243–2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Fries EM (1874) Hymenomycetes Europaei. Upsaliae. E Berling, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  99. Furtado JS (1968) Basidial cytology of Exidia nucleata. Mycologia 60: 9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Gardes M, Bruns TD (1996) Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Pinus muricata forest: above-and below-ground views. Can J Bot 74: 1572–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gargas A, DePriest PT, Grube M, Tehler A (1995) Multiple origins of lichen symbioses in fungi suggested by ssu rDNA phylogeny. Science 268: 1492–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Garrett SD (1981) Soil fungi and soil fertility, 2nd edn. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  103. Gilbertson RL (1971) Phylogenetic relationships of hymenomycetes with resupinate, hydnaceous basidiocarps. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 275–307Google Scholar
  104. Gilbertson RL (1980) Wood-rotting fungi of North America. Mycologia 72: 1–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gilbertson RL (1981) North American wood-rotting fungi that cause brown rots. Mycotaxon 12: 372–416Google Scholar
  106. Gilbertson RL (1984) Relationships between insects and wood-rotting basidiomycetes. In: Wheeler Q, Blackwell M (eds) Fungus-insect relationships. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 130–165Google Scholar
  107. Gilbertson RL, Ryvarden L (1986) North American polypores vol 1. Fungiflora, OsloGoogle Scholar
  108. Gill M (1996) Pigments of fungi (macromycetes). Nat Prod Rep 1996: 513–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Gill M, Steglich W (1987) Pigments of fungi (macromycetes). Prog Chem Nat Prod 51: 1–317Google Scholar
  110. Ginns J (1979) The genus Ramaricium (Gomphaceae). Bot Not 132: 93–102Google Scholar
  111. Ginns J (1997) The taxonomy and distribution of rare or uncommon species of Albatrellus in western North America. Can J Bot 75: 261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ginns J, Lefebvre MNL (1993) Lignicolous corticioid fungi (Basidiomycota) of North America: systematics, distribution, and ecology. Mycol Mem 19: 1–247Google Scholar
  113. Ginns JH, Malloch D (1977) Halocyphina, a marine Basid- iomycete (Aphyllophorales). Mycologia 69: 53–58Google Scholar
  114. Gochenauer SE (1981) Cyrenella elegans gen. et sp. nov., a dikaryotic anamorph. Mycotaxon 13:267–277Google Scholar
  115. Grant WD, Rhodes LL, Prosser BA, Asher RA (1986) Production of bacteriolytic enzymes and degradation of bacteria by filamentous fungi. J Gen Microbiol 132: 2353–2358Google Scholar
  116. Green F, Highley TL (1997) Mechanism of brown-rot decay: paradigm or paradox. Int Biodet Biodegrad 39: 113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Grenville DJ, Peterson RL, Riche Y (1985a) The development, structure, and histochemistry of sclerotia of ectomycorrhizal fungi. I. Pisolithus tinctorius. Can J Bot 63: 1402–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Grenville DJ, Peterson RL, Piche Y (1985b) The development, structure, and histochemistry of sclerotia of ectomycorrhizal fungi. II. Paxillus involutus. Can J Bot 63: 1402–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Griffith NT, Barnett HL (1967) Mycoparasitism by basidiomycetes in culture. Mycologia 59: 149–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Gulden G, Jenssen KM (1988) Arctic and alpine fungi-2. Soppkonsulenten, OsloGoogle Scholar
  121. Gulden G, Jenssen KM, Stordal J (1985) Arctic and alpine fungi-1. Soppkonsulenten, OsloGoogle Scholar
  122. Hacskaylo E (1971) The role of mycorrhizal associations in the evolution of the higher basidiomycetes. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 217–240Google Scholar
  123. Hale ME (1983) The biology of lichens, 3d edn. Edward Arnold, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  124. Happ GM, Happ CM, Barras SJ (1976) Bark beetle-fungus symbiosis. II. Fine structure of a basidiomycetous ectosymbiont of the southern pine beetle. Can J Bot 54: 1049–1062Google Scholar
  125. Harrison KA (1971) The evolutionary lines in the fungi with spines supporting the hymenium. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 375–392Google Scholar
  126. Harrison KA (1973) Aphyllophorales III: Hydnaceae and Echinodontiaceae. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds) The Fungi, an advanced treatise, vol IV B. Academic Press, New York, pp 369–396Google Scholar
  127. Hatakka A (1994) Lignin-modifying enzymes from selected white-rot fungi: production and role in lignin degredation. FEMS Microbiol Rev 13: 125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Hawksworth DL (1988) Coevolution of fungi with algae and cyanobacteria in lichen symbioses. In: Pirozynski KA, Hawksworth DL (eds) Coevolution of fungi with plants and animals. Academic Press, London, pp 125–148Google Scholar
  129. Hawskworth DL, Kirk PM, Sutton BC, Pegler DN (1995) Dictionary of the fungi, 8th edn. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  130. Heim R (1971) The interrelationships between the Agaricales and Gasteromycetes. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 505–534Google Scholar
  131. Heim R, Wasson RG (1959) Les champignons hallucigènes du Mexique. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, ParisGoogle Scholar
  132. Hibbett DS (1992) Ribosomal RNA and fungal systematics. Trans Mycol Soc Jpn 33: 533–556Google Scholar
  133. Hibbett DS (1996) Phylogenetic evidence for horizontal transmission of group I introns in the nuclear ribosomal DNA of mushroom-forming fungi. Mol Biol Evol 13: 903–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Hibbett DS, Donoghue MJ (1995) Progress toward a phylogenetic classification of the Polyporaceae through parsimony analyses of mitochondria) ribosomal DNA sequences. Can J Bot 73 (Suppl 1): s853 — s861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hibbett DS, Donoghue MI (1998) Integrating phylogenetic analysis and classification in fungi. Mycologia 90: 347–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Hibbett DS, Thorn RG (1994) Nematode-trapping by Pleurotus tuber-regium Mycologia 86: 696–699Google Scholar
  137. Hibbett DS, Vilgalys R (1993) Phylogenetic relationships of Lentinus ( Basidiomycotina) inferred from molecular and morphological characters. Syst Bot 18: 409433Google Scholar
  138. Hibbett DS, Murakami S, Tsuneda A (1993a) Sporocarp ontogeny in Panus: evolution and classification. Am J Bot 80: 1336–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Hibbett DS, Murakami S, Tsuneda A (1993b) Hymenophore development and evolution in Lenti-nus. Mycologia 85: 428–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Hibbett DS, Murakami S, Tsuneda A (1994a) Postmeiotic nuclear behavior in Lentinus, Panus, and Neolentinus. Mycologia 86: 725–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Hibbett DS, Tsuneda A, Murakami S (1994b) The secotioid form of Lentinus tigrinus: genetics and development of a fungal morphological innovation. Am J Bot 81: 466–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Hibbett DS, Grimaldi D, Donoghue MJ (1997a) Fossil mushrooms from Miocene and Cretaceous ambers and the evolution of homobasidiomycetes. Am J Bot 84: 981–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Hibbett DS, Pine EM, Langer E, Langer G, Donoghue MJ (1997b) Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. Proc Nate Acad Sci USA 94: 12002–12006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Highley TL (1988) Celluloytic activity of brown-rot and white-rot fungi on solid media. Holzforschung 42: 211–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Hjortstam K, Larsson K-H, Ryvarden L, Eriksson J (1988) The Corticiaceae of North Europe, vol 1. Introduction and keys. Fungiflora, OsloGoogle Scholar
  146. Hoiland K (1980) Cortinarius subgenus Leprocybe in Norway. Norw J Bot 27:101–126Google Scholar
  147. Ht iland K (1986) Contribution to the nomenclature of Cortinarius subgenus Dermocybe. Nord J Bot 5: 625–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Hopple JS, Vilgalys R (1994) Phylogenetic relationships among coprinoid taxa and allies based on data from restriction site mapping of nuclear rDNA. Mycologia 86: 96–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Hsiau P (1996) The taxonomy and phylogeny of the mycangial fungi from Dendroctonus brevicomis and D. frontales (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). PhD Thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, IowaGoogle Scholar
  150. Hubbard M, Petersen RH (1979) Studies in basidial nuclear behavior of selected species of clavarioid and cantharelloid fungi. Beih Sydowia 8: 209–223Google Scholar
  151. Hudson HJ (1972) Fungal saprophytism. Studies in Biology no 32. Edward Arnold, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  152. Hughey BD, Adams GC, Bruns TD, Hibbett DS (2000) Phylogeny of Calostoma, the gelatinous-stalked puffball, based on nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 92: 94–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Hutchison LJ (1989) Absence of conidia as a morphological character in ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycologia 81: 587–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Hutchison LI (1991a) Description and identification of cultures of ectomycorrhizal fungi found in North America. Mycotaxon 42: 387–504Google Scholar
  155. Hutchison LJ (1991b) Formation of sclerotia by Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca in nature. Trans Mycol Soc Jpn 32: 235–245Google Scholar
  156. Hutchison LI, Barron GL (1996) Parasitism of yeasts by lignicolous Basidiomycota and other fungi. Can J Bot 74: 735–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Hutchison LI, Barron GL (1997) Parasitism of algae by lignicolous Basidiomycota and other fungi. Can J Bot 75: 1006–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Hutchison LI, Madzia SE, Barron GL (1996) The presence and antifeedant function of toxin-producing secretory cells on hyphae of the lawn-inhabiting agaric Conocybe lactea. Can J Bot 74: 431–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Ingold CT (1971) Fungal spores, their liberation and dispersal. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  160. Ingold CT (1985) Observations on spores and their germination in certain heterobasidiomycetes. Trans Br Mycol Soc 85: 417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Ingold CT (1992) The conidial stage in Exidiopsis effusa and E. longispora. Mycol Res 96: 932–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Jackson HS (1950) Studies of Canadian Thelephoraceae. V.Google Scholar
  163. Two new species of Aleurodiscus. Can J Res C, 28:63–77 Jacobsson S (1989) Studies on Pholiota in culture. Mycotaxon 36:95–145Google Scholar
  164. Jeffries P, Young TWK (1994) Interfungal parasitic relationships. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  165. Johnson CN (1996) Interactions between mammals and ectomycorrhizal fungi. TREE 11: 503–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Johnson EA, Schroeder WA (1996) Microbial carotenoids. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 53: 119–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Juel HO (1898) Die Kerntheilungen in den Basidien und die Phylogenie der Basidiomyceten. Jahrb Wiss Bot 32: 361–388Google Scholar
  168. Juel HO (1916) Cytologische Pilzstudien I. Die Basidien der Gattungen Cantharellus, Craterellus und Clavaria. Nova Acta Regiae Soc Sci Ups, Ser IV, 4: 1–40Google Scholar
  169. Jülich W (1981) Higher taxa of basidiomycetes. J Cramer, VaduzGoogle Scholar
  170. Jülich W, Stalpers J (1980) The resupinate non-poroid Aphyllophorales of the temperate northern hemisphere. North Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  171. Keller G (1982) Pigmentationsuntersuchungen bei europäischen Arten aus der gattung Dermocybe (Fr) Wânsche. Sydowia 35: 110–126Google Scholar
  172. Keller J (1997) Atlas des Basidiomycetes. Union des Societes Suisses de Mycologie, NeuchâtelGoogle Scholar
  173. Kendrick B, Watling R (1979) Mitospores in Basidiomycetes. In: Kendrick B (ed) The whole fungus, vol 2. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada, pp 473–546Google Scholar
  174. Khan SR, Talbot PHB (1976) Ultrastructure of septa in hyphae and basidia of Tulasnella. Mycologia 68: 1027–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. King JM (1966) Some aspects of the biology of the fungal symbiont of Sirex noctilio. Aust J Bot 14: 25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Klan J, Baudisovâ D, Rulfovâ I (1989) Cultural, enzymatic and cytological studies in the genus Pholiota. Mycotaxon 36: 249–271Google Scholar
  177. Ko KS, Hong SG, Jung HS (1997) Phylogenetic analysis of Trichaptum based on nuclear 18S, 5.8S and ITS ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 89: 727–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Kobayasi Y (1952) On the genus Favolaschia and Campanella from Japan. J Hattori Bot Lab 8: 1–4Google Scholar
  179. Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1979) Marine mycology. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  180. Koller B, Jahrmann HJ (1985) Life-cycle and physiological description of the yeast-form of the homobasidiomycete Asterophora lycoperdoides. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 51: 255–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Kratochvil JF, Burris RH, Seikel MK, Harkin JM (1971) Isolation and characterization of a-guaiaconic acid and the nature of guaiacum blue. Phytochemistry 10: 2529–2531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Kreisel H (1969) Grunndzüge eines natürlichen Systems der Pilze. J Cramer, LehreGoogle Scholar
  183. Kretzer A, Bruns TD (1997) Molecular revisitation of the genus Gastrosuillus. Mycologia 89: 586–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Kühner R (1972) Architecture de la paroi sporique des hyménomycètes et de ses différenciations. Persoonia 7: 217–248Google Scholar
  185. Kühner R (1980) Les Hyménomycètes agaricoïdes (Agaricales, Tricholomatales, Pluteales, Russulales). Bull Soc Linn Lyon, Num Spec, pp 1–1027Google Scholar
  186. Kühner R (1984) Some mainlines of classification in the gill fungi. Mycologia 76: 1059–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Laaser G, Möller E, Jahnke K-D, Bahnweg G, Prillinger H, Prell HH (1989) Ribosomal DNA restriction fragment analysis as a taxonomic tool in separating physiologically similar basidiomycetous yeasts. Syst Appl Microbiol 11: 170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Lange M (1952) Species concept in the genus Coprinus. Dan Bot Ark 14: 1–164Google Scholar
  189. Langer E (1994) Die Gattung Hyphodontia John Eriksson. Bibl Mycol 154: 1–298Google Scholar
  190. Langer E, Oberwinkler F (1993) Corticioid basidiomycetes. Morphology and ultrastructure. Windahlia 20: 1–28Google Scholar
  191. Langer G (1994) Die Gattung Botryobasidium Donk (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes). Bibl Mycol 158: 1–459Google Scholar
  192. Langvad F (1971) New structures in the basidiomycete Coniophora cerebella. J Bacteriol 106: 679–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Largent D, Johnson D, Watling R (1977) How to identify mushrooms to genus III: microscopic features. Mad River Press, Eureka, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  194. Larsen M, Burdsall HH (1976) A consideration of the term gloeocystidium. Mem New York Bot Gard 28: 123–130Google Scholar
  195. Larsen MJ, Gilbertson RL (1977) Studies in Laeticorticium ( Aphyllophorales, Corticiaceae) and related genera. Norw J Bot 24: 99–121Google Scholar
  196. Lee S-S, Jung HS (1997) Phylogenetic analysis of the Corticiaceae based on gene sequences of nuclear 18S ribosomal DNAs. J Microbiol 35: 253–258Google Scholar
  197. Lentz PL (1971) Analysis of modified hyphae as a tool in taxonomic research in the higher basidiomycetes. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 99–128Google Scholar
  198. Liou JY, Tzean SS (1992) Stephanocysts as nematode-trapping and infecting propagules. Mycologia 84: 786–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Liu YJ, Rogers SO, Ammirati JF (1997) Phylogenetic relationships in Dermocybe and related Cortinarius taxa based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers. Can J Bot 75: 519–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Lutzoni FM (1997) Phylogeny of lichen-and non-lichenforming omphalinoid mushrooms and the utility of testing for combinability among multiple data sets. Syst Biol 46: 373–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Lutzoni FM, Pagel M (1997) Accelerated evolution as a consequence of transitions to mutualism. Proc Nate Acad Sci USA 94: 11422–11427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Maas Geesteranus RA (1963) Hyphal structures in Hydnums. II. Proc K Ned Akad Wet, Ser C, 66: 426–436Google Scholar
  203. Madden JL, Coutts MP (1979) The role of fungi in the biology and ecology of woodwasps (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). In: Batra LR (ed) Insect-fungus symbiosis. John Wiley, New York, pp 165–174Google Scholar
  204. Maehly AC, Chance B (1954) The assay of catalases and peroxidases. Meth Biochem Anal 1: 357–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Maekawa N (1987) A new species of the genus Cerinomyces. Can J Bot 65: 583–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Maire R (1902) Recherches cytologiques and taxonomiques sur les basidiomycètes. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 18: (Suppl): 1–192Google Scholar
  207. Malloch DW (1987) The evolution of mycorrhizae. Can J Plant Pathol 9: 398–402Google Scholar
  208. Marvanovâ L, Bärlocher F (1988) Hyphomycetes from Canadian streams. I. Basidiomyceteous anamorphs. Mycotaxon 32: 339–351Google Scholar
  209. Marvanovâ L, Stalpers JA (1987) The genus Taeniospora and its teleomorphs. Trans Br Mycol Soc 89: 489–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. McLaughlin DJ (1981) The spindle pole body and postmeiotic meiosis in A uricularia fuscosuccinea. Can J Bot 59: 1196–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Miller OK (1971) The relationship of cultural characters to the taxonomy of the agarics. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 197–216Google Scholar
  212. Miller OK, Miller H (1988) Gasteromycetes: morphological and developmental features. Mad River Press, Eureka, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  213. Miller OK, Watling R (1987) Whence cometh the agarics? A reappraisal. In: Rayner ADM, Brasier CM, Moore D (eds) Evolutionary biology of the fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 435–448Google Scholar
  214. Miller SL, Torres P, McClean TM (1994) Persistence of basidiospores and sclerotia of ectomycorrhizal fungi and Morchella in soil. Mycologia 86: 89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Mims CW, Seabury F (1989) Ultrastructure of tube formation and basidiospore development in Ganoderma lucidum. Mycologia 81: 754–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Moncalvo JM, Lutzoni FM, Rehner SA, Johnson J, Vilgalys R (2000) Phylogenetic relationships of agaric fungi based on nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Syst Biol 49 (in press)Google Scholar
  217. Moore RT (1980) Taxonomic significance of septal ultrastructure in the genus Onnia Karsten (Polyporineae/Hymenochaetaceae). Bot Not 133: 169–175Google Scholar
  218. Moore RT (1985) The challenge of the dolipore septum. In: Moore D, Casselton LA, Wood DA, Frankland JC (eds) Developmental biology of higher fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 175–212Google Scholar
  219. Moore RT (1987) The genera of Rhizoctonia-like fungi: Ascorhizoctonia, Ceratorhiza gen. nov., Epulorhiza gen. nov., Moniliopsis, and Rhizoctonia. Mycotaxon 29: 91–99Google Scholar
  220. Moore RT, Patton AM (1975) Parenthesome fine structure in Pleurotus cystidiosus and Schizophyilum commune. Mycologia 67: 1200–1205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Moser M (1978) Keys to agarics and boleti. Phillips, LondonGoogle Scholar
  222. Mueller GJ, Mueller GM, Shih L-H, Ammirati JF (1993) Cytological studies in Laccaria (Agaricales). I. Meiosis and postmeiotic mitosis. Am J Bot 80: 316–321Google Scholar
  223. Mueller GM, Ammirati JF (1993) Cytological studies in Laccaria (Agaricales). II. Assessing phylogenetic relationships among Laccaria, Hydnangium, and other Agaricales. Am J Bot 80: 322–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Mueller GM, Pine EM (1994) DNA data provide evidence on the evolutionary relationships between mushrooms and false truffles. Mcllvainea 11: 61–74Google Scholar
  225. Müller WH, Stalpers JA, van Aelst AC, van der Krift TP, Boekhout T (1998) Field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy of septal pore caps of selected species in the Rhizoctonia s.l. complex. Mycologia 90: 170–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Murphy JF, Miller OK (1993) Diversity and local distribution of mating alleles in Marasmiellus praeacutus and Collybia subnuda ( Basidiomycetes, Agaricales). Can J Bot 75: 8–17Google Scholar
  227. Nakasone KK (1990) Cultural studies and identification of wood-inhabiting Corticiaceae and selected Hymenomycetes from North America. Mycol Mem 15: 1–412Google Scholar
  228. Nakasone KK (1996) Morphological and molecular studies on Auriculariopsis albomellea and Phlebia albida and a reassessment of A. ampia. Mycologia 88: 762–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Nawawi A (1985) Basidiomycetes with branched, water- borne conidia. Bot J Linn Soc (Lond) 91: 51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Nawawi A, Webster J (1982) Sistotrema hamatum sp. nov., the teleomorph of Ingoldiela hamata. Trans Br Mycol Soc 78: 287–291Google Scholar
  231. Nawawi A, Descals E, Webster J (1977) Leptosporomyces galzinii, the basidial state of a clamped branched conidium from fresh water. Trans Br Mycol Soc 68: 31–36Google Scholar
  232. Neda H, Nakai T (1995) Phylogenetic analysis of Pleurotus based on data from partial sequences of 18SrDNA and ITS-1 regions. In: Elliot T (ed) Science and cultivation of edible fungi. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 161–168Google Scholar
  233. Nilsson T (1974) Comparative study on the cellulolytic activity of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Mater Org 9: 173–198Google Scholar
  234. Nilsson T, Ginns JH (1979) Cellulolytic activity and the taxonomic position of selected brown-rot fungi. Mycologia 71: 170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Nobles MK (1965) Identification of cultures of wood-inhabiting Hymenomycetes. Can J Bot 43: 1097–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Nobles MK (1971) Cultural characters as a guide to the taxonomy of the Polyporaceae. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 169–196Google Scholar
  237. Nuss I (1983) Bemerkungen zu dem Buch von Jülich (1982) Higher taxa of basidiomycetes. Westf Pilzbr 10–11: 260–271Google Scholar
  238. Oberwinkler F (1970) Die Gattungen der Basidiolichenen. Dtsch Bot Ges Neue Folge 4: 139–169Google Scholar
  239. Oberwinkler F (1972) The relationships between the Tremellales and the Aphyllophorales. Persoonia 7: 1–16Google Scholar
  240. Oberwinkler F (1975) Eine agaricoide Gattung Thelephorales. Sydowia 28: 359Google Scholar
  241. Oberwinkler F (1977) Das neue System der Basidiomyceten. In: Frey H, Hurka H, Oberwinkler F (eds) Beiträge zur Biologie der niederen Pflanzen. G Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 59–105Google Scholar
  242. Oberwinkler F (1982) The significance of the morphology of the basidium in the phylogeny of basidiomycetes. In: Wells K, Wells EK (eds) Basidium and basidocarp, evolution, cytology, function, and development. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, pp 9–35Google Scholar
  243. Oberwinkler F (1984) Fungus-alga interactions in basidiolichens. Beih Nova Hedwigia 79: 739–774Google Scholar
  244. Oberwinkler F (1985) Anmerkungen zur Evolution and Systematik der Basidiomyceten. Bot Jahrb Syst 107: 541–580Google Scholar
  245. Oberwinkler F, Horak E (1979) Stephanosporaceae—eine neue Familie der Basdiomycetes mit aphyllophoralean und gastroiden Fruchtkörpen. Plant Syst Evol 131: 157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. O’Donnell KL, McLaughlin DJ (1984) Postmeiotic mitosis, basidiospore development, and septation in Ustilago maydis. Mycologia 76: 486–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. O’Kane DJ, Lingle WL, Porter D, Wampler JE (1990) Localization of bioluminescent tissues during basidiocarp development in Panellus stypticus. Mycologia 82: 595–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Orth AB, Royse DJ, Tien M (1993) Uniquity of lignindegrading peroxidases among various wood-degrading fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 4017–4023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Owens EM, Reddy CA, Grethlein HE (1994) Outcome of interspecific interactions among brown-rot and white-rot wood decay fungi. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 14: 19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Owings P, Desjardin DE (1997) A molecular phylogeny of Marasmius and selected genera. Inoculum 48 (3): 29Google Scholar
  251. Parag Y (1965) Papillae secreting water droplets on aerial mycelia of Schizophyllum commune. Isr J Bot 14: 192–195Google Scholar
  252. Parmasto E (1978) The genus Dictyonema (“Thelephorolichenes”). Nova Hedwigia 29: 99–144Google Scholar
  253. Parmasto E (1986) On the origin of hymenomycetes (what are corticioid fungi?). Windahlia 16: 3–19Google Scholar
  254. Parmasto E (1995) Corticioid fungi: a cladistic study of a paraphyletic group. Can J Bot 73 (Suppl 1): s843 — s852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Parmasto E, Parmasto I (1979) The xanthochroic reaction in Aphyllophorales. Mycotaxon 8: 201–232Google Scholar
  256. Patouilliard N (1900) Essai taxonomique sur les familles et les genres des hyménomycètes. Lucien Declume, Lons-le-SaunierGoogle Scholar
  257. Patrignani G, Pellegrini S (1986) Fine structures of the fungal septa on varieties of basidiomycetes. Caryologia 39: 239–250Google Scholar
  258. Pegler DN (1973) Aphyllophorales IV: Poroid families. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds) The Fungi, an advanced treatise, vol IVB. Academic Press, New York, pp 397–420Google Scholar
  259. Pegler DN (1975) The classification of the genus Lentinus Fr. (Basidiomycota). Kavaka 3: 11–20Google Scholar
  260. Pegler DN (1983) The genus Lentinus, a world monograph. Kew Bull Add it Ser 10: 1–281Google Scholar
  261. Pegler DN (1996) Hyphal analysis of basidiomata. Mycol Res 100: 129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Pegler DN, Young TWK (1971) Basidiospore morphology in the Agaricales. Beih Nova Hedwigia 35: 1–210Google Scholar
  263. Pegler DN, Young TWK (1979) The gasteroid Russulales. Trans Br Mycol Soc 72: 353–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Pegler DN, Spooner BM, Young TWK (1993) British truffles. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  265. Pegler DN, LœssQ e T, Spooner BM (1995) British puffballs, earthstars and stinkhorns. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  266. Penancier N (1961) Recherches sur l’orientation des fuseaux mitotiques dans la baside des Aphyllophorales. Tray Lab La Jaysinia 2: 57–71Google Scholar
  267. Petch T (1915) The pseudo-sclerotia of Lentinus similis and Lentinus infundibuliformis. Ann R Bot Gard Peradeniya 6: 1–18Google Scholar
  268. Petersen RH (1967) Evidence on the interrelationships of the families of clavarioid fungi. Trans Br Mycol Soc 50: 641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Petersen RH (1971) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, KnoxvilleGoogle Scholar
  270. Petersen RH (1973) Aphyllophorales II: The clavarioid and cantharelloid basidiomycetes. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds) The Fungi, an advanced treatise, vol IVB. Academic Press, New York, pp 351–368Google Scholar
  271. Petersen RH (1995a) There’s more to a mushroom than meets the eye: mating studies in the Agaricales. Mycologia 87: 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Petersen RH (1995b) Contributions of mating studies to mushroom systematics. Can J Bot 73 (Suppl 1): s831–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Petersen RH, Bermudes D (1992) Intercontinental compatibility in Panellus stypticus with a note on bioluminescence. Persoonia 14: 457–463Google Scholar
  274. Pine EM, Hibbett DS, Donoghue MJ (1999) Phylogenetic relationships of cantharelloid and clavarioid homobasidiomycetes based on mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA sequences. Mycologia 91: 944–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Porter D, Farnham WF (1986) Mycaureola dilseae, a marine basidiomycete parasite of the redalga, Dilsea carnosa. Trans Br Mycol Soc 87: 575–582Google Scholar
  276. Price TV, Baldwin JA, Simpson JA (1978) Fungal club-heads in Papua New Guinea. Nature 273: 374–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Raper JR, Flexer AS (1971) Mating systems and evolution of the basidiomycetes. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 149–168Google Scholar
  278. Preston CM, Sollin P, Sayer BG (1990) Changes in organic components for fallen logs in old-growth Douglas-fir forests monitored by 13C nuclear resonance spectroscopy. Can J For Res 20: 1382–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Rayner ADM, Boddy L (1988) Fungal decomposition of wood: its biology and ecology. John Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  280. Rayner ADM, Watling R, Frankland JC (1985) Resource relations—an overview. In: Moore D, Casselton LA, Wood DA, Frankland JC (eds) Developmental biology of higher fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–40Google Scholar
  281. Rayner ADM, Boddy L, Dowson CG (1987) Temporary parasitism of Coriolus spp. by Lenzites betulina: a strategy for domain capture in wood decay fungi. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 45: 53–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Read DJ (1974) Pezizella ericae sp. nov. the perfect state of a typical mycorrhizal endophyte of Ericaceae. Trans Br Mycol Soc 63:381–383Google Scholar
  283. Reddy CA, D’Souza TM (1994) Physiology and molecular biology of the lignin peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. FEMS Microbiol Rev 13: 137–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Redhead SA (1980) Gerronema pseudogrisella, No 170. Fungi Canadenses. National Mycological Herbarium, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  285. Redhead SA (1981) Parasitism of bryophytes by agarics. Can J Bot 59: 63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Redhead SA (1984) Arrhenia and Rimbachia,expanded generic concepts, and a reevaluation of Leptoglossum with emphasis on muscicolous North American taxa. Can J Bot 62:865–892Google Scholar
  287. Redhead SA (1986) The Xerulaceae (Basidiomycetes), a family with sarcodimitic tissues. Can J Bot 65: 1551–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Redhead SA, Ginns JH (1983) Book review of “higher Taxa of Basidiomycetes” by W. Jülich. Mycologia 75: 567–578Google Scholar
  289. Redhead SA, Ginns JH (1985) A reappraisal of agaric genera associated with brown rots of wood. Trans Mycol Soc Jpn 26: 349–381Google Scholar
  290. Redhead SA, Kroeger P (1987) A sclerotium-producing Hypholoma from British Columbia. Mycotaxon 29: 457–465Google Scholar
  291. Redhead SA, Kuyper TW (1987) Lichenized agarics: taxonomic and nomenclatural riddles. In: Laursen GA, Ammirati JF, Redhead SA (eds) Arctic and alpine mycology II. Plenum Press, New York, pp 319–349Google Scholar
  292. Redhead SA, Norvell L (1993) Notes on Bondarzewia, Het- erobasidion and Pleurogala. Mycotaxon 48: 371–380Google Scholar
  293. Redhead SA, Ammirati JF, Walker GR, Norvell LL, Puccio MB (1994) Squamanita contortipes, the Rosetta Stone of a mycoparasitic agaric genus. Can J Bot 72: 1812–1824Google Scholar
  294. Reid DA (1963) Notes on some fungi of Michigan-1. Cyphellaceae. Persoonia 3: 97–154Google Scholar
  295. Reid DA (1965) A monograph of the stipitate stereoid fungi. Beih Nova Hedwigia 18: 1–382Google Scholar
  296. Reijnders AFM, Stalpers JS (1992) The development of the hymenophoral trama in the Aphyllophorales and the Agaricales. Stud Mycol 34: 1–109Google Scholar
  297. Restivo JH, Petersen RH (1976) Studies on nuclear division and behavior within basidia I. Hydnum umbilicatum. Mycologia 68: 666–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Rogers DP (1932) A cytological study of Tulasnella. Bot Gaz 94: 86–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Ryvarden L (1991) Genera of polypores: nomenclature and taxonomy. Synopsis Fungorum 5: 1–363Google Scholar
  300. Ryvarden L, Gilbertson RL (1993) European polypores, part 1. Fungiflora, OsloGoogle Scholar
  301. Savile DBO (1955) A phylogeny of the basidiomycetes. Can J Bot 33: 60–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Schaffer RL (1975) The major groups of basidiomycetes. Mycologia 67: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Seifert KA (1983) Decay of wood by the Dacrymycetales. Mycologia 75: 1011–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Seifert KA, Okada G (1988) Gloeosynnema, a new genus of synnematous Hyphomycetes with basidiomycetous affinities. Mycotaxon 32: 471–476Google Scholar
  305. Senn-Irlet B, Jenssen KM, Gulden G (1990) Arctic and alpine fungi-3. Soppkonsulenten, OsloGoogle Scholar
  306. Seviour RJ, Willing RR, Chilvers GA (1973) Basidiocarps associated with ericoid mycorrhizas. New Phytol 72: 381–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Shaw DE (1972) Ingoldiella hamata gen. et sp. nov., a fungus with clamp connexions from a stream in North Queensland. Trans Br Mycol Soc 59:255–259Google Scholar
  308. Sigler L, Carmichael JW (1976) Taxonomy of Malbranchea and some other Hyphomycetes with arthroconidia. Mycotaxon 4: 349–488Google Scholar
  309. Simpson JA (1996) Wood decay fungi. In: Orchard AE, Mallett K, Grgurinovic C (eds) Fungi of Australia, vol 1B. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra, pp 95–136Google Scholar
  310. Singer R (1962) The Agaricales (mushrooms) in modern taxonomy, 2nd edn. Cramer, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  311. Singer R (1973) The genera Marasmiellus, Crepidotus and Simocyhe in the Neotropics. Beih Nova Hedwigia 44: 1–517Google Scholar
  312. Singer R (1984) Tropical Russulaceae II. Lactarius sect. Panuoidei. Nova Hedwigia 40: 435–447Google Scholar
  313. Singer R (1986) The Agaricales in modern taxonomy, 4th edn. Koeltz Scientific Books, KoenigsteinGoogle Scholar
  314. Singer R, Snell WH, White WL (1945) The taxonomic position of Polyporoletus sublividus. Mycologia 37: 124128Google Scholar
  315. Sjamsuridzal W, Tajiri Y, Nishida H, Thuan TB, Kawasaki H, Hirata A, Yokota A, Sugiyama J (1997) Evolutionary relationships of members of the genera Taphrina, Protomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, and related taxa within the archiascomycetes: integrated analysis of genotypic and phenotypic characters. Mycoscience 38: 267–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Slocum RD (1980) Light and electron microscopic investigations in the Dictyonemataceae (basidiolichens). Dictyonema irpicinum. Can J Bot 58: 1005–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Smith AH (1973) Agaricales and related secotioid Gasteromycetes. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds) The Fungi, an advanced treatise, vol IVB. Academic Press, New York, pp 397–420Google Scholar
  318. Smith SE, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  319. Spurr R, Spurr J, Ammirati J (1985) A parasitic mushroom on the white chantarelle. Mcllvainea 7: 29–31Google Scholar
  320. Srinivasan C, D’Souza TM, Boominathan K, Reddy CA (1995) Demonstration of laccase in the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKMF1767. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 4274–4277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Stalpers JA (1978) Identification of wood-inhabiting Aphyllophorales in pure culture. Stud Mycol 16: 1–248Google Scholar
  322. Stalpers JA (1979) Heterobasidion (Fomes) annosum and the Bondarzewiaceae. Taxon 28:414–417Google Scholar
  323. Stalpers JA (1984) A revision of the genus Sporotrichum. Stud Mycol 24: 1–105Google Scholar
  324. Stalpers JA (1987) Pleoanamorphy in Holobasidiomycetes. In: Sugiyama J (ed) Pleomorphic fungi: the diversity and its taxonomic implications. Kodansha, Tokyo, pp 201–220Google Scholar
  325. Stalpers JA (1992) Albatrellus and the Hericiaceae. Persoonia 14:537–541Google Scholar
  326. Stalpers JA (1993) The aphyllophoraceous fungi I. Keys to the species of the Thelephorales. Stud Mycol 35: 1–168Google Scholar
  327. Stalpers JA, Andersen TF (1996) A synopsis of the taxonomy of teleomorphs connected with Rhizoctonia s.l. In: Sneh B, Jabaji-Hare S, Neate S, Dijst G (eds) Rhizoctonia species: taxonomy, molecular biology, ecology, pathology and control. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 49–63Google Scholar
  328. Stalpers JA, Loerakker WM (1982) Laetisaria and Limonmyces species ( Corticiaceae) causing pink diseases in turf grasses. Can J Bot 60: 529–537Google Scholar
  329. Stamets P, Chilton JS (1983) The mushroom cultivator: a practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. Agarikon Press, Olympia, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  330. Steglich W, Steffan B, Stroech K, Wolf M (1984) Pistillarin, a characteristic metabolite of Clavariadelphus pistillaris and several Ram nia species. [Pistillarin, ein charakteristischer Inhaltddtoff der Herkuleskeule (Clavariadelphus pistillaris) und eineger Romariaarten (Basidiomycetes).] Z Naturforsch 39c: 10–12Google Scholar
  331. Stewart EL (1974) The genus Gautieria Vitt. PhD Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OregonGoogle Scholar
  332. Stillwell MA (1966) Woodwasps (Siricidae) in conifers and the associated fungus, Stereum chailletii, in eastern Canada. For Sci 12: 121–128Google Scholar
  333. Swann EC, Taylor JW (1993) Higher taxa of basidiomycetes: an 18S rRNA gene perspective. Mycologia 85: 923–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Swann EC, Taylor JW (1995a) Phylogenetic perspectives on basidiomycete systematics: evidence from the 18S rRNA gene. Can J Bot 73 (Suppl): s862 — s868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Swann EC, Taylor JW (1995b) Phylogenetic diversity of yeast-producing basidiomycetes. Mycol Res 99: 1205–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Tabata M, Abe Y (1995) Cerrena unicolor isolated from the mycangia of a horntail, Tremex longicollis, in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Mycoscience 36: 447–450Google Scholar
  337. Talbot PHB (1973a) Towards uniformity in basidial terminology. Trans Br Mycol Soc 61: 497–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Talbot PHB (1973b) Aphyllophorales I: General characteristics; thelphoroid and cupuloid families. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds) The Fungi, an advanced treatise, vol IV B. Academic Press, New York, pp 327–350Google Scholar
  339. Tanesaka E, Masuda H, Kinugawa K (1993) Wood degrading ability of basidiomycetes that are wood decomposers, litter decomposers, or mycorrhizal symbionts. Mycologia 85: 347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Taylor DL, Bruns TD (1997) Independent, specialized invasions of ectomycorrhizal mutualism by two non-photosynthetic orchids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 4510–4515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Tehler A (1988) A cladistic outline of the Eumycota. Cladistics 4: 227–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Thielke C (1972) Die Dolipore der Basidiomyceten. Arch Mikrobiol 82: 31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Thiers HD (1984) The secotioid syndrome. Mycologia 76: 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Thorn RG (1997) The fungi in soil. In: van Elsas JD, Trevors JT, Wellington EMH (eds) Modern soil microbiology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 63–127Google Scholar
  345. Thorn RG, Barron GL (1984) Carnivorous mushrooms. Science 224: 76–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Thorn RG, Barron GL (1986) Nematoctonus and the tribe Resupinateae in Ontario, Canada. Mycotaxon 25: 321–453Google Scholar
  347. Thorn RG, Tsuneda A (1992) Interactions between various wood-decay fungi and bacteria: antibiosis, attack, lysis, or inhibition. Rep Tottori Mycol Inst 30: 13–20Google Scholar
  348. Thorn RG, Moncalvo JM, Reddy CA, Vilgalys R (2000) Phylogenetic analyses and the distribution of nematophagy support a monophyletic Pleurotaceae within the polyphyletic pleurotoid-lentinoid fungi. Mycologia 92 (in press)Google Scholar
  349. Thurston CF (1994) The structure and function of fungal laccases. Microbiology 140: 19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Tommerup IC, Bougher NL, Malajczuk N (1991) Laccaria fraterna, a common ectomycorrhizal fungus with mono-and bi-sporic basidia and multinucleate spores: comparison with the quadristerigmate, binucleate spored L. laccata and the hypogeous relative Hydnangium carneum. Mycol Res 95: 689–698Google Scholar
  351. Trappe JM (1962) Fungus associates of ectotrophic mycorrhizae. Bot Rev 28: 538–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Trappe JM, Maser C (1977) Ectomycorrhizal fungi: Interactions of mushrooms and truffles with beasts and trees. In: Walters T (ed) Mushrooms and man, an interdisciplinary approach to mycology. Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, pp 165–179Google Scholar
  353. Traquair JA, McKeen WE (1978) Ultrastructure of the dolipore septum in Hirschiporus paragamenus ( Polyporaceae ). Can J Microbiol 24: 767–771Google Scholar
  354. Trojanowski J, Haider K, Hütterman A (1984) Decomposition of “C-labelled lignin, holocellulose and lignocellulose by mycorrhizal fungi. Arch Microbiol 139: 202–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Tsuneda A (1983) Fungal morphology and ecology. Tottori Mycological Institute, TottoriGoogle Scholar
  356. Tsuneda A, Thorn RG, Hibbett DS (1992) Lentinus tigrinus: chlamydospores and interaction with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Rep Tottori Mycol Inst 30: 1–12Google Scholar
  357. Tsuneda A, Murakami S, Sigler S, Hiratsuka Y (1993) Schizolysis of dolipore-parenthesome septa in an arthroconidial fungus associated with Dendroctonus ponderosae and in similar anamorphic fungi. Can J Bot 71: 1032–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Tu CC, Kimbrough JW (1978) Systematics and phylogeny of fungi in the Rhizoctonia complex. Bot Gaz 139: 454–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Tyler VE (1971) Chemotaxonomy in the basidiomycetes. In: Petersen RH (ed) Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 29–62Google Scholar
  360. Tzean SS, Liou JY (1993) Nematophagous resupinate basidiomycetous fungi. Phytopathology 83: 1015–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Umata H (1995) Seed germination of Galeola altissima, an achlorophyloous orchid, with aphyllophorales fungi. Mycoscience 36: 369–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Umata H (1997) Formation of endomycorrhizas by an achlorophyllous orchid, Erythrorchis ochobiensis, and Auricularia polytricha. Mycoscience 38: 335–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Umata H (1998) A new biological function of Shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, in a myco-heterotrophic orchid, Erythrorchis ochobiensis. Mycoscience 39: 85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Untiedt E, Müller K (1985) Colonization of Sphagnum cells by Lyophyllum palustre. Can J Bot 63: 757–761Google Scholar
  365. Vares T, Hatakka A (1997) Lignin-degrading activity and ligninolytic enzymes of different white-rot fungi: effects of manganese and malonate. Can J Bot 75: 61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Varma A, Hock B (1995) Mycorrhiza: structure, function, molecular biology and biotechnology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  367. Walker J (1996) The classification of the fungi: history, current status and usage in the Fungi of Australia. In: Orchard AE, Grgurinovic C, Mallett K (eds) Fungi of Australia, vol 1A. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra, pp 1–66Google Scholar
  368. Walleyn R, Rammeloo J (1994) The poisonous and useful fungi of Africa south of the Sahara. National Botanic Garden of Belgium, MeiseGoogle Scholar
  369. Wassink EC (1978) Luminescence in fungi. In: Herring PJ (ed) Bioluminescence in action. Academic Press, London, pp 171–197Google Scholar
  370. Watling R (1974) Dimorphism in Entoloma abortivum. Bull Soc Linn Lyon, Num Spec 43: 449–470Google Scholar
  371. Watling R (1979) The morphology, variation and ecological significance of anamorphs in the Agaricales. In: Kendrick B (ed) The whole fungus, vol 2. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada, pp 453–472Google Scholar
  372. Weber GF (1929) The occurrence of tuckahoes and Paria cocos in Forida. Mycologia 21: 113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Weber NA (1979) Fungus-culturing by ants. In: Batra LR (ed) Insect-fungus symbiosis. John Wiley, New York, pp 77–116Google Scholar
  374. Webster J (1992) Anamorph-teleomorph relationships. In: Bärlocher F (ed) The ecology of aquatic Hyphomycetes. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 99–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Webster J, Chien C-Y (1990) Ballistopore discharge. Trans Mycol Soc Jpn 31: 301–315Google Scholar
  376. Wells K (1978) The fine structure of septal pore apparatus in the lamellae of Pholiota terrestris. Can J Bot 56: 2915–2924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Wells K (1994) Jelly fungi, then and now! Mycologia 86: 18–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Wheeler Q, Blackwell M (1984) Fungus-insect relationships. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  379. Whitney HS, Cobb FW (1972) Non-staining fungi associated with the bark beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on Pinus Ponderosa. Can J Bot 50: 1943–1945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Whitney HS, Bandoni RJ, Oberwinkler F (1987) Entomocorticium dendroctoni gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycotina), a possible nutritional symbiote of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine in British Columbia. Can J Bot 65: 95–102Google Scholar
  381. Wilding N, Collins NM, Hammond PM, Webber JF (1989) Insect-fungus interactions. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  382. Wilson CL, Miller JC, Griffin BR (1967) Nuclear behavior in the basidium of Fames annosus. Am J Bot 54: 1186–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Wood TG, Thomas RJ (1989) The mutualistic association between Macrotermitinae and Termitomyces. In: Wilding N, Collins NM, Hammond PM, Webber JF (eds) Insect-fungus interactions. Academic Press, London, pp 69–92Google Scholar
  384. Worrall JW, Anagnost SE, Zabel RA (1997) Comparison of wood decay among diverse lignicolous fungi. Mycologia 89: 199–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Wright JE (1966) The genus Phaeotrametes. Mycologia 58: 529–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Zhao Z, Guo X (1989) Study on hyperparasitic relationships between Rhizoctonia solani and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Acta Microbiol Sin 29: 170–173Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. S. Hibbett
    • 1
  • R. G. Thorn
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyClark UniversityWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA

Personalised recommendations