Oscillations in the Perception of Ambiguous Patterns

  • Hermann Haken
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 50)


The study of ambiguous (or ambivalent) patterns such as Fig. 13.1 has intrigued psychologists for a long time. Such patterns can be traced back as far as Roman times (Lorscheid and Hofmeister 1980) (Fig. 13.2). In 1759 Porterfield and in 1832 Necker reported on such patterns (Fig. 13.3). For more recent studies and reviews see Fisher (1967), Gombrich (1973), Gräser (1977), Pöppel (1982), Kawamoto and Anderson (1985).


Reversion Time Hysteresis Effect Fluctuate Force Necker Cube Attention Parameter 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Haken
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische Physik und SynergetikUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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