Spinal and Spinal Cord Arteries and Veins
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The vascular anatomy of the spine and spinal cord has been well known since the end of the nineteenth century. Most recently, angiographic investigations have added to this body of knowledge (Chiras 1979, 1985; Crock 1977; Di Chiro 1973; Djindjian 1970; Dommisse 1975; Doppman 1969; In the maxillofacial area beside the cranium few bony barriers exist, although the mandible and the maxillary bone have vascular foramina, fissures, and canals. The only true barrier in this area is represented by the muscles of mastication: the temporal, pterygoid, and masseter muscles. The arteries run on the surface of these muscles, and local collateral circulation sometimes takes a wandering course, as the vessels skirt around the muscles (Fig. 1.21). In the facial region, cutaneous muscles do not behave as a comparable restrictive barrier; local collateral circulation through subcutaneous or submucosal arteries is seldom tortuous, even after increased blood flow.
KeywordsVertebral Artery Double Arrow Lumbar Artery Cervical Artery Selective Injection
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