Endorectal and Anal Sonography

  • B. Roche


In the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the use of endoluminal ultrasonography for a variety of anorectal applications. The introduction of technology that allows real-time 360° radial scanning of the anorectum and the surrounding structures began a new era in endoluminal imaging. The possibility of accurately staging rectal cancer preoperatively was the first real benefit obtained using this new modality, and many other useful applications in the field of colorectal surgery have since become apparent.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Beahrs O, Henson D, Hutter R (1992) Manual for staging cancer, 4th edn. American Joint Committee on Cancer. Lip-pincott, Philadelphia, p 84Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beynon J, Foy DMA, Roe AM et al (1986) Endoluminal ultrasound in the assessment of local invasion of rectal cancer. Br J Surg 73:474477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beynon J, Mortensen NJM, Foy DMA et al (1989) Preoperative assessment of mesorectal lymph node involvement in rectal cancer. Br J Surg 76:276279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Billingham RP (1992) Conservative treatment of rectal cancer: extending the indication. Cancer 70:13551363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burnett SSD, Bartram CI (1991) Endosonographic variations in the normal internal anal sphincter. Int J Colorec Dis 6:24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheouy DMO, Nogueras JJ, Wexner SD (1993) Anal en-dosonography for recurrent anal fistulas: image enhancement with hydrogen peroxide. Dis Colon Rectum 36:11581160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Deen KI, Williams JG, Hutchinson R et al (1994) Fistulas in ano: endoanal ultrasonographic assessment assists decision making for surgery. Gut 35:391394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deen KL, Madoff RD, Belmonte C, Wong WD (1995) Preoperative staging of rectal neoplasms with endorectal ultrasonography. Semin Col Rect Surg 2:7885Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fransioli A, Weber B, Cunningham M, Roche B, Marti MC, Hadengue A (1996) Dynamic evaluation of puborectalis muscle function by external perineal sonography. Tech Coloproctol 3:125129Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gantke B, Schafer A, Enck P et al (1993) Sonographic, manometric, and myographic evaluation of the anal sphincters morphology and function. Dis Colon Rectum 36:10371041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gould RG (1989) Fundamental physics of CT, MR, and ultrasound imaging. Perspect Colon Rectal Surg 2:115130Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hager T, Gall FP, Hermanek P (1983) Local excision of cancer of the rectum. Dis Colon Rectum 26:149151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Herzog U, von Flue M, Tondelli P et al (1993) How accurate is endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging rectal cancer? Dis Colon Rectum 36:127134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hildebrandt U, Feifel G (1985) Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum 28:4246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hildebrandt U, Klein T, Feifel G et al (1990) Endosonography of pararectal lymph nodes: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Dis Colon Rectum 33:863868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holdsworth PJ, Johnston D, Chalmers AG et al (1988) En-doluminal ultrasound and computed tomography in the staging of rectal cancer. Br J Surg 75:10191022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Katsura Y, Yamada K, Ishizawa T et al (1992) Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of wall invasion and lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 35:362368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Law PJ, Talbot RW, Bartram CI et al (1989) Anal endosonography in the evaluation of perianal sepsis and fistula in ano. Br J Surg 76:752755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lindmark G, Elvin A, Pahlman L et al (1992) The value of endosonography in preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Int J Colorect Dis 7:162166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Milsom JW, Graffner H (1990) Intrarectal ultrasonography in rectal cancer staging and in the evaluation of pelvic disease. Clinical uses of intrarectal ultrasound. Ann Surg 212:602606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morson BCX (1996) Factors influencing the prognosis of early carcinoma of the rectum. Proc Roy Soc Med 59:3536Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Parks AG (1961) Pathogenesis and treatment of fistula-in-ano. Br Med J 1:463469PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Parks AG, Morson BC (1962) Fistula-in-ano. Proc R Soc Med 55:751758Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roche B, Marti MC (1996) Intérêt de léchographie endo-anale dans le bilan dune incontinence anale. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 126:645695Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Saitoh N, Okui K, Sarashina H et al (1986) Evaluation of echographic diagnosis of rectal cancer using intrarectal ultrasonic examination. Dis Colon Rectum 29:234242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Solomon M J, McLeod RS, Cohen EK et al (1994) Reliability and validity studies of endoluminal ultrasonography for anorectal disorders. Dis Colon Rectum 37:546551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stearns MW, Sternberg SS, DeCosse JJ (1984) Treatment alternatives. Localized rectal cancer. Cancer 54:26912694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Talbot IC et al (1994) Anal endosonography for identifying external sphincter defects confirmed histologically. Br J Surg 81:463465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tio TL, Mulder CJJ, Wijers OB et al (1990) Endosonography of peri-anal and peri-colorectal fistula and/or abscess in Crohns disease. Gastrointest Endosc 36:331336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tjandra JJ, Milsom JW, Stolfi VM et al (1992) Endoluminal ultrasound defines anatomy of the anal canal and pelvic floor. Dis Colon Rectum 35:465470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van Outryve MI, Pelckmans PA, Michielsen PP et al (1991) Value of transrectal ultrasonography in Crohns disease. Gastroenterology 101:11711177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zainea GG, Lee F, McLeary R et al (1989) Transrectal ultrasonography in the evaluation of rectal and extrarectal disease. Surg Gynecol Obstet 169:153156PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Roche

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations