Quandle Cocycle Invariants
Invariants in a state-sum form that are defined in a similar manner for both classical knots and knotted surfaces were first presented in [CJKLS03] (and announced in [CJKLS99]) using cocycles of quandle homology theory. The quandle cocycle knot invariants are natural generalizations of the Dijkgraaf-Witten invariant for 3-manifolds and other state-sum invariants. They have found important topological applications. In this chapter, we review these developments.
KeywordsManifold Dition Agram Betti
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