Iron in Minerals and the Formation of Rust in Stone

  • Erhard M. Winkler


The mean iron content of the earth’s crust is 5%. Iron is locked in ferromagnesian silicates in rocks at the earth’s surface mostly as green or black ferrous-ferric iron. The black ferrous-ferric form is magnetite, the red ferric oxide, hematite, and the yellow-brass ferrous sulfides are commonly cubic pyrite and orthorhombic spearhead-shaped marcasite. Iron also appears as white to dark brown ferrous carbonate (siderite) and green iron silicate, glauconite, which adds a greenish color to sedimentary rocks (Sect. 4.4).


Metallic Iron Iron Mineral Pyrite Oxidation Ferric Hydroxide Stone Surface 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erhard M. Winkler
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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