The understanding of turbulence is highly relevant to the protection of our natural living conditions and many technological developments. To develop environmental protection control strategies, we need knowledge about the mechanisms of the global warming up of our earth’s atmosphere, the development and path of hurricanes and the transport of (radioactive) substances in the turbulent atmosphere. With regard to technological developments, we are interested to see how the efficiency of the mixing of species in chemical reactors or propulsion systems of high-speed aircraft can be enhanced. Studies of turbulent phenomena by means of measurements are usually very expensive. In addition to this, one obtains in this way only limited (and often quite inaccurate) information about some of the quantities of interest. To understand turbulent phenomena in their complexity, we need models that enable the simulation of turbulent flows. Basic ways to construct such models, and characteristic advantages and disadvantages of different approaches, will be described in this book, as illustrated in Fig. 1.1.
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