Problems of Silicon Crystal for VLSI Applications
Problems of Silicon Wafers are reviewed from the standpoint of the needs of VLSI devices. After specifying the characteristics of VLSI devices the representative problems of silicon wafers are discussed. They are the flatness of a silicon wafer with a large diameter, the surface quality of the wafer, and a low density of heavy metal impurity. Finally a Gettering procedure, which is indispensable in the VLSI era is discussed from the viewpoint of the recent VLSI processing. As a result, it is emphasised that a clean processing is preferable to the conventional one of the normal grade in the VLSI Processes, even when the Gettering procedure is applied.
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